Management of Bleeding Peptic Ulcer Disease

Chapter

Abstract

Peptic ulcers are defects in the gastrointestinal mucosa that extend through the muscularis mucosae. They persist as a function of the acid or peptic activity in gastric juice. The natural history of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) ranges from resolution without intervention to the development of complications with potential for significant morbidity and mortality, such as bleeding and perforation. Peptic ulcer disease is an important cause of morbidity and health-care costs. Estimates of expenditures related to work loss, hospitalization, and outpatient care are $5.65 billion per year in the United States [1].

Keywords

Fatigue Catheter Ischemia Tuberculosis Serotonin 

References

  1. 1.
    Sonnenberg A and Everhart JE. Health impact of peptic ulcer in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol 1997;92:614–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kurata JH and Nogawa AN. Meta-analysis of risk factors for peptic ulcer. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Helicobacter pylori, and smoking. J Clin Gastroenterol 1997;24:2–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arroyo MT, Forne M, deArgila CM, et al. The prevalence of peptic ulcer not related to Helicobacter pylori or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use is negligible in Southern Europe. Helicobacter 2004;9:249–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nishikawa K, Sugiyama T, Kato M, et al. Non-Helicobacter pylori and non-NSAID peptic ulcer disease in the Japanese population. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000;12:635–641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ciociola AA, McSorley DJ, Turner K, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection rates in duodenal ulcer patients in the United States may be lower than previously estimated. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:1834–1842.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jyotheeswaran S, Shah AN, Jin HO, et al. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer patients in greater Rochester, NY: is empirical triple therapy justified? Am J Gastroenterol 1998;93:574–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chiorean M, Locke G, Zinsmeister A, et al. Changing rates of Helicobacter pylori testing and treatment in patients with peptic ulcer disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:3015–3022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vonkeman HE, Klok RM, Postma MJ, et al. Direct medical costs of serious gastrointestinal ulcers among users of NSAIDs. Drugs Aging 2007;24:681–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Garcia-Rodriquez LA and Hernandez-Diaz S. Risk of uncomplicated peptic ulcer among users of aspirin and nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Epidemiol 2004;159:23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Garcia-Rodriquez LA, Hernandez-Diaz S and deAbajo FJ. Association between aspirin and upper gastrointestinal complications: systematic review of epidemiologic studies. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001;52:563–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pilotto A, Seripa D, Franceschi M, et al. Genetic susceptibility to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related gastroduodenal bleeding: role of cytochrome P450 2C9 polymorphisms. Gastroenterol 2007;133:465–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lewis JD, Bilker WB, Brensinger C, et al. Hospitalization and mortality rates from peptic ulcer disease and GI bleeding in the 1990s: relationship to sales of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acid suppression medications. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:2540–2549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barkun A, Sabbah S, Enns R, et al. The Canadian Registry on Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Endoscopy (RUGBE): endoscopic hemostasis and proton pump inhibition are associated with improved outcomes in a real-life setting. Am J Gastroenterol 2004;99:1238–1246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Targownik LE and Nabalamba A. Trends in management and outcomes of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: 1993–2003. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;4:1459–1466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lassen A, Hallas J, Schaffalitzky DE, et al. Complicated and uncomplicated peptic ulcers in a Danish county 1993–2002: a population-based cohort study. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:945–953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ohmann C, Imhof M, Ruppert C, et al. Time-trends in the epidemiology of peptic ulcer bleeding. Scand J Gastroenterol 2005;40:914–920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Viviane A and Alan BN. Estimates of costs of hospital stay for variceal and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the United States. Value Health 2008;11:1–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Spiegelhalter DJ, Crean GP, Holden R, et al. Taking a calculated risk: predictive scoring systems in dyspepsia. Scand J Gastroenterol Supp 1987;128:152–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cappell MS. Gastric and duodenal ulcers during pregnancy. Gastroenterol Clin NA 2003;32:263–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hilton D, Iman N, Burke GJ, et al. Absence of abdominal pain in older persons with endoscopic ulcers: a prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:380–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Laine L and Peterson WL. Bleeding peptic ulcer. N Engl J Med 1994;331:717–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Anonymous. British Society of Gastroenterology Endoscopy Committee. Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: guidelines. Gut 2002;51(Suppl 4)iv1–iv6.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aljebreen AM, Fallone CA and Barkun AN. Nasogastric aspirate predicts high-risk endoscopic lesions in patients with acute upper-GI bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;59:172–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hébert PC, Wells G, Blajchman MA, et al. A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of transfusion requirements in critical care. N Engl J Med 1999;340:409–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baradarian R, Ramdhaney S, Chapalamadugu R, et al. Early intensive resuscitation of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding decreases mortality. Am J Gastroenterol 2004;99:619–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Corley DA, Stefan AM, Wolf M, et al. Early indicators of prognosis in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Am J Gastroenterol 1998;93:336–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee SD and Kearney DJ. A randomized controlled trial of gastric lavage prior to endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004;38:861–865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carbonell N, Pauwels A, Serfaty L, et al. Erythromycin infusion prior to endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:1211–1215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Barkun A, Bardou M and Marshall JK. Consensus recommendations for managing patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Ann Intern Med 2003;139:843–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Das A and Wong RC. Prediction of outcome of acute GI hemorrhage: a review of risk scores and predictive models. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;60:85–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cappell MS and Abdullah M. Management of gastrointestinal bleeding induced by gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastroenterol Clin NA 2000;29:125–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Blatchford O, Murray WR and Blatchford M. A risk score to predict need for treatment for upper-gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Lancet 2000;356:1318–1321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Masaoka T, Suzuki H, Hori S, et al. Blatchford scoring system is a useful scoring system for detecting patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who do not need endoscopic intervention. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;22:1404–1408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rockall TA, Logan RF, Devlin HB, et al. Risk assessment after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Gut 1996;38:316–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gralnek IM and Dulai GS. Incremental value of upper endoscopy for triage of patients with acute non-variceal upper-GI hemorrhage. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;60:9–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Romagnuolo J, Barkun AN, Enns R, et al. Simple clinical predictors may obviate urgent endoscopy in selected patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:265–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Forrest JA, Finlayson ND and Shearman DJ. Endoscopy in gastrointestinal bleeding. Lancet 1974;2:394–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Anonymous. Consensus conference: therapeutic endoscopy and bleeding ulcers. J Amer Med Assoc 1989;262:1369–1372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Freeman ML, Cass OW, Peine CJ, et al. The non-bleeding visible vessel versus the sentinel clot: natural history and risk of rebleeding. Gastrointest Endosc 1993;39:359–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lau JY, Sung JJ, Chan AC, et al. Stigmata of hemorrhage in bleeding peptic ulcers: an interobserver agreement study among international experts. Gastrointest Endosc 1997;46:33–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wong RC. Endoscopic Doppler US probe for acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;60:804–812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Adler DG, Leighton JA, Davila RE, et al. ASGE guideline: the role of endoscopy in acute non-variceal upper-GI hemorrhage. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;60:497–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Spiegel BM, Vakil NB and Ofman JJ. Endoscopy for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage: is sooner better? A systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1393–1404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lau JY, Chung SC, Leung JW, et al. The evolution of stigmata of hemorrhage in bleeding peptic ulcers: a sequential endoscopic study. Endoscopy 1998;30:513–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cook DJ, Guyatt GH, Salena BJ, et al. Endoscopic therapy for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 1992;102:139–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Park CH, Lee SJ, Park JH, et al. Optimal injection volume of epinephrine for endoscopic prevention of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;60:875–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Choudari CP and Palmer KR. Endoscopic injection therapy for bleeding peptic ulcer: a comparison of adrenaline alone with adrenaline plus ethanolamine oleate. Gut 1994;35:608–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chung SC, Leong HT, Chan AC, et al. Epinephrine or epinephrine plus alcohol for injection of bleeding ulcers: a prospective randomized trial. Gastrointest Endosc 1996;43:591–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rutgeerts P, Rauws E, Wara P, et al. Randomised trial of single and repeated fibrin glue compared with injection of polidocanol treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer. Lancet 1997;350:692–698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Calvert X, Vergara M, Brullet E, et al. Addition of a second endoscopic treatment following epinephrine injection improves outcome in high-risk bleeding ulcers. Gastroenterol 2004;126:441–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Laine L and Estrada R. Randomized trial of normal saline solution injection versus bipolar electrocoagulation for treatment of patients with high-risk bleeding ulcers: is local tamponade enough? Gastrointest Endosc 2002;55:6–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Llarch J, Bordas JM, Salmeron JM, et al. A prospective randomized trial of heater probe thermocoagulation versus injection therapy in peptic ulcer hemorrhage. Gastrointest Endosc 1996;43:117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chau CH, Siu WT, Law BK, et al. Randomized controlled trial comparing epinephrine injection plus heat probe coagulation versus epinephrine injection plus argon plasma coagulation for bleeding peptic ulcers. Gastrointest Endosc 2003;57:455–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cipoletta L, Bianco MA, Marmo R, et al. Endoclips versus heater probe in preventing early recurrent bleeding from peptic ulcer: a prospective and randomized trial. Gastrointest Endosc 2001;53:147–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lin HJ, Hsieh YH, Tseng GY, et al. A prospective, randomized trial of endoscopic hemoclip versus heater probe thermocoagulation for peptic ulcer bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:2250–2254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gevers AM, DeGoede E, Simoens M, et al. A randomized trial of comparing injection therapy with hemoclip and with injection combined with hemoclip for bleeding ulcers. Gastrointest Endosc 2002;55:466–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chung SS, Lau JY, Sung JJ, et al. Randomized comparison between adrenaline injection alone and adrenaline injection plus heat probe treatment for actively bleeding ulcers. Br Med J 1997;314:1307–1311.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Calvert X, Vergara M, Brullet E, et al. Addition of a second endoscopic treatment following epinephrine injection improves outcome in high-risk bleeding ulcers. Gastroenterol 2004;126:441–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Marmo R, Rotondano G, Bianco MA, et al. Outcome of endoscopic treatment for peptic ulcer bleeding: is a second look necessary? A meta-analysis. Gastrointest Endosc 2003;57:62–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chiu PW, Lam CY, Lee SW, et al. Effect of scheduled second therapeutic endoscope on peptic ulcer rebleeding: a prospective randomised trial. Gut 2003;52:1403–1407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rockall TA, Logan RF, Devlin HB and Northfield TC. Selection of patients for early discharge or outpatient care after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: national audit of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Lancet 1996;347:1138–1140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Longstreth GF and Feitelberg SP. Successful outpatient management of acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: use of practice guidelines in a large patient series. Gastrointest Endosc 1998;47:219–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dulai GS, Gralnek IM, Oei TT, et al. Utilization of health care resources for low-risk patients with acute, nonvariceal upper GI hemorrhage: an historical cohort study. Gastrointest Endosc 2002;55:321–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hay JA, Maldonado L, Weingarten SR, et al. Prospective evaluation of a clinical guideline recommending hospital length of stay in upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage. JAMA 1997;278:2151–2156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lai KC, Hui WM, Wong BC, et al. A retrospective and prospective study on the safety of discharging selected patients with duodenal ulcer bleeding on the same day as endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 1997;45:26–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Moreno P, Jaurrieta E, Aranda H, et al. Efficacy and safety of an early discharge protocol in low-risk patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Med 1998;105:176–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lee JG, Turnipseed S, Romano PS, et al. Endoscopy-based triage significantly reduces hospitalization rates and costs of treating upper GI bleeding: a randomized controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc 1999;50:755–761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cipolletta L, Bianco MA, Rotondano G, et al. Outpatient management for low-risk nonvariceal upper GI bleeding: a randomized controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc 2002;55:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bjorkman DJ, Zaman A, Fennerty MB, et al. Urgent vs. elective endoscopy for acute non-variceal upper-GI bleeding: an effectiveness study. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;60:1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Barkun AN, Cockeram AW, Plourde V, et al. Review article: acid suppression in non-variceal acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999;13:1565–1584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Metz DC, Am F, Hunt B, et al. Lansoprazole regimens that sustain intragastric pH >6.0: an evaluation of intermittent oral and continuous intravenous infusion dosages. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006;23:985–995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Levine JE, Leontiadis GI, Sharma VK, et al. Meta-analysis: the efficacy of intravenous H2-receptor antagonists in bleeding peptic ulcer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002;16:1137–1142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lau JYW, Sung JJY, Lee KKC, et al. Effect of intravenous omeprazole on recurrent bleeding after endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. N Engl J Med 2000;343:310–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bardou M, Toubouti Y, Benhaberou-Brun D, et al. Meta-analysis: proton-pump inhibition in high-risk patients with acute peptic ulcer bleeding. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;21:677–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Leontiadis GI, Sharma VK and Howden CW. Proton pump inhibitor treatment for acute peptic ulcer bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;1:CD002094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jensen DM, Pace SC, Soffer E, et al. Continuous infusion of pantoprazole versus ranitidine for prevention of ulcer rebleeding: a US multicenter randomized, double-blind study. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:1991–1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Morgan D. Intravenous proton pump inhibitors in the critical care setting. Crit Care Med 2002;30(Suppl):S369–S372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Barkun AN, Herba K, Adam V, et al. High-dose intravenous proton pump inhibition following endoscopic therapy in the acute management of patients with bleeding peptic ulcers in the USA and Canada: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;19:591–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Spiegel BM, Dulai GS, Lim BS, et al. The cost-effectiveness and budget impact of intravenous versus oral proton pump inhibitors in peptic ulcer hemorrhage. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;4:988–997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dorward S, Sreedharan A, Leontiadis G, et al. Proton pump inhibitor treatment initiated prior to endoscopic diagnosis in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;4:CD005415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lau JY, Leung WK, Wu JCY, et al. Omeprazole before endoscopy in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med 2007;356:1631–1640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Al-Sabah S, Barkun AN, Herba K, et al. Cost-effectiveness of proton-pump inhibition before endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;6:418–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tsoi KK, Lau JY and Sung JJ. Cost-effectiveness analysis of high-dose omeprazole infusion prior to endoscopy for patients presenting with upper-GI bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc 2008;67:1056–1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Leontiadis GI, Sharma VK and Howden CW. Systematic review and meta-analysis: enhanced efficacy of proton-pump inhibitor therapy for peptic ulcer bleeding in Asia – a post hoc analysis from the Cochrane collaboration. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;21:1055–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Arabi Y, Al Knawy B, Barkun AN, et al. Pro/con debate: octreotide has an important role in the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding of unknown origin? Crit Care 2006;10:218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rokkas T, Karameris A, Mavrogeorgis A, et al. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori reduces the possibility of rebleeding in peptic ulcer disease. Gastrointest Endosc 1995;41:1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jaspersen D, Koerner T, Schorr W, et al. Helicobacter pylori eradication reduces the rate of rebleeding in ulcer hemorrhage. Gastrointest Endosc 1995;41:5–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Graham DY, White RH, Moreland LW, et al. Duodenal and gastric ulcer prevention with misoprostol in arthritis patients taking NSAIDs. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:257–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Silverstein FE, Graham DY, Senior JR, et al. Misoprostol reduces serious gastrointestinal complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:241–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fallah MA, Prakash C and Edmundowicz S. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Med Clin NA 2000;84:1183–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Alavi A. Detection of gastrointestinal bleeding with 99mTc-sulfur colloid. Semin Nucl Med 1982;12:126–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pavel DG, Zimmer M and Patterson VN. In vivo labeling of red blood cells with 99mTc: a new approach to blood pool visualization. J Nucl Med 1977;18:305–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Toyoda H, Nakano S, Kumada T, et al. Transcatheter arterial embolization for massive bleeding from duodenal ulcers not controlled by endoscopic hemostasis. Endoscopy 1995;27:304–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rupp T, Singh S and Waggenspack W. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage: the prehospital recognition, assessment and management of patients with a GI bleed. J Emerg Med Serv 2004;29:80–81.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dempsey DT, Burke DR, Reilly RS, et al. Angiography in poor-risk patients with massive nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Surg 1990;159:282–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Aina R, Oliva VL, Therasse E, et al. Arterial embolotherapy for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: outcome assessment. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2001;12:195–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Aabakken L. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy 2001;33:16–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Voeller GR, Bunch G and Britt LG. Use of technetium-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy in the detection and management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Surgery 1991;110:799–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rivkin K and Lyakhovetskiy A. Treatment of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2005;62:1159–1170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rosen RJ and Sanchez G. Angiographic diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage: current concepts. Radiol Clin NA 1994;32:951–967.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gomes AS, Lois JF and McCoy RD. Angiographic treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage: comparison of vasopressin infusion and embolization. Am J Roentgenol 1986;146:1031–1037.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Funaki B. Microcatheter embolization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage: an old idea whose time has come. Cardiovasc Interv Radiol 2004;27:591–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Funaki B. Superselective embolization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a new paradigm. Abdom Imaging 2004;29:434–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lang EK. Transcatheter embolization in management of hemorrhage from duodenal ulcer: long-term results and complications. Radiology 1992;182:703–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Schenker MP, Duszak R, Soulen MC, et al. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and transcatheter embolotherapy: clinical and technical factors impacting success and survival. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2001;12:1263–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sacks HS, Chalmers TC, Blum AL, et al. Endoscopic hemostasis: an effective therapy for bleeding peptic ulcers. J Amer Med Assoc 1990;264:494–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Carreira JM, Reyes R, Pulido-Duque JM, et al. Diagnosis and percutaneous treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage: long-term experience. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 1999;91:684–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Walsh RM, Anain F, Geisinger M, et al. Role of angiography and embolization for massive gastroduodenal hemorrhage. J Gastrointest Surg 1999;3:61–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ripoll C, Bañares R, Beceiro I, et al. Comparison of transcatheter arterial embolization and surgery for treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer after endoscopic treatment failure. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2004;15:447–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kim SK and Duddalwar V. Failed endoscopic therapy and the interventional radiologist: non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Tech Gastrointest Endosc 2005;7:148–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Paimela H, Oksala NK and Kivilaakso E. Surgery for peptic ulcer today: a study on the incidence, methods and mortality in surgery for peptic ulcer in Finland between 1987 and 1999. Dig Surg 2004;21:185–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Imhof M, Ohmann C, Röher HD, et al. Endoscopic versus operative treatment in high-risk ulcer bleeding patients – results of a randomised study. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2003;387:327–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Jiranek GC and Kozarek RA. A cost-effective approach to the patient with peptic ulcer bleeding. Surg Clin NA 1996;76:83–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Imhof M, Schroders C, Ohmann C, et al. Impact of early operation on the mortality from bleeding peptic ulcer-10 years’ experience. Dig Surg 1998;15:308–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lau JYW, Sung JJY, Lam Y, et al. Endoscopic retreatment compared with surgery in patients with recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic control of bleeding ulcers. N Engl J Med 1999;340:751–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Poxon VA, Keighley MRB, Dykes PW, et al. Comparison of minimal and conventional surgery in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer: a multicentre trial. Br J Surg 1991;78:1344–1345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Millat B, Hay JM, Valleur P, et al. Emergency surgical treatment for bleeding duodenal ulcer: oversewing plus vagotomy versus gastric resection, a controlled randomized trial. World J Surg 1993;17:568–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Mulholland MW and Debas HT. Chronic duodenal and gastric ulcer. Surg Clin NA 1987;67:489–507.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Johnston D and Blackett RL. Recurrent peptic ulcers. World J Surg 1987;11:274–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Thompson JC and Wiener I. Evaluation and surgical treatment of duodenal ulcer: short- and long-term effects. Clin Gastroenterol 1984;13:569–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    de la Fuente SG, Khuri SF, Schifftner T, et al. Comparative analysis of vagotomy and drainage versus vagotomy and resection procedures for bleeding peptic ulcer disease: results of 907 patients from the Department of Veterans Affairs national surgical quality improvement program database. J Am Coll Surg 2006;202:78–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sabiston DC, Jr. Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1997, p. 854.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.General Surgery Residency Training ProgramDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations