Advertisement

Acute to Chronic Pain: Transition in the Post-Surgical Patient

  • Roland T. ShortIII
  • Thomas R. Vetter
Chapter

Abstract

Military conflicts, by their nature, inflict enormous physical, mental, and emotional scars on the combatants. The injuries range from multitrauma combat injuries to noncombat related overuse injuries and accidents. This chapter will review the injury patterns and review the current state of treatment of these conditions.

Keywords

Chronic Pain Neuropathic Pain Dorsal Horn Central Sensitization Noxious Stimulus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aasvang, E., & Kehlet, H. (2005). Chronic postoperative pain: The case of inguinal herniorrhaphy. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(1), 69–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aida, S. (2005). The challenge of preemptive analgesia. Pain Clinical Updates, XIII, 1–4.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Chaer, E. (2011). Neuroanatomy of pain and pain pathways. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care: Biobehavioral approaches for the life course. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Al-Chaer, E. D., & Weaver, S. A. (2009). Early Life Trauma and Chronic Pain. In E. A. Mayer & M. C. Bushnell (Eds.), Functional pain syndromes: Presentation and pathophysiology (pp. 423–452). Seattle: IASP Press.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Apkarian, A. V., Baliki, M. N., & Geha, P. Y. (2009). Towards a theory of chronic pain. Progress in Neurobiology, 87(2), 81–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Apkarian, A. V., Bushnell, M. C., Treede, R. D., & Zubieta, J. K. (2005). Human brain mechanisms of pain perception and regulation in health and disease. Eur J Pain, 9(4), 463–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Argyriou, A. A., Koltzenburg, M., Polychronopoulos, P., Papapetropoulos, S., & Kalofonos, H. P. (2008). Peripheral nerve damage associated with administration of taxanes in patients with cancer. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 66(3), 218–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arner, S., & Meyerson, B. A. (1988). Lack of analgesic effect of opioids on neuropathic and idiopathic forms of pain. Pain, 33(1), 11–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arnold, L. M., Rosen, A., Pritchett, Y. L., D’Souza, D. N., Goldstein, D. J., Iyengar, S., et al. (2005). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine in the treatment of women with fibromyalgia with or without major depressive disorder. Pain, 119(1–3), 5–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aurilio, C., Pota, V., Pace, M. C., Passavanti, M. B., & Barbarisi, M. (2008). Ionic channels and neuropathic pain: Physiopathology and applications. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 215(1), 8–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Battaglia, T. C., Mulhall, K. J., Brown, T. E., & Saleh, K. J. (2006). Increased surgical volume is associated with lower THA dislocation rates. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 447, 28–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baumrucker, S. J. (2002). Post-thoracotomy pain syndrome: An opportunity for palliative care. The American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care, 19(2), 83–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beecher, H. K. (1946). Pain in Men Wounded in Battle. Ann Surg, 123(1), 96–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beecher, H. K. (1959). Measurement of subjective responses; quantitative effects of drugs. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Belmonte, C., & Cervero, E. (1996). Neurobiology of nociceptors. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beydoun, A., & Backonja, M. M. (2003). Mechanistic stratification of antineuralgic agents. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 25(5 Suppl), S18–S30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bhave, G., & Gereau, R. W. T. (2004). Posttranslational mechanisms of peripheral sensitization. Journal of Neurobiology, 61(1), 88–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bini, G., Cruccu, G., Hagbarth, K. E., Schady, W., & Torebjork, E. (1984). Analgesic effect of vibration and cooling on pain induced by intraneural electrical stimulation. Pain, 18(3), 239–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Borly, L., Anderson, I. B., Bardram, L., Christensen, E., Sehested, A., Kehlet, H., et al. (1999). Preoperative prediction model of outcome after cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 34(11), 1144–1152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brandsborg, B., Nikolajsen, L., Kehlet, H., & Jensen, T. S. (2008). Chronic pain after hysterectomy. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 52(3), 327–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brau, M. E., Dreimann, M., Olschewski, A., Vogel, W., & Hempelmann, G. (2001). Effect of drugs used for neuropathic pain management on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) currents in rat sensory neurons. Anesthesiology, 94(1), 137–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bruce, J., Drury, N., Poobalan, A. S., Jeffrey, R. R., Smith, W. C., & Chambers, W. A. (2003). The prevalence of chronic chest and leg pain following cardiac surgery: A historical cohort study. Pain, 104(1–2), 265–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bruce, J., Poobalan, A. S., Smith, W. C., & Chambers, W. A. (2004). Quantitative assessment of chronic postsurgical pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 20(2), 70–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cerfolio, R. J., Price, T. N., Bryant, A. S., Sale Bass, C., & Bartolucci, A. A. (2003). Intracostal sutures decrease the pain of thoracotomy. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 76(2), 407–411; discussion 411–402.Google Scholar
  25. Cesare, P., Dekker, L. V., Sardini, A., Parker, P. J., & McNaughton, P. A. (1999). Specific involvement of PKC-epsilon in sensitization of the neuronal response to painful heat. Neuron, 23(3), 617–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chan, B. L., Witt, R., Charrow, A. P., Magee, A., Howard, R., Pasquina, P. F., et al. (2007). Mirror therapy for phantom limb pain. The New England Journal of Medicine, 357(21), 2206–2207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chen, H., Deshpande, A. D., Jiang, R., & Martin, B. C. (2005). An epidemiological investigation of off-label anticonvulsant drug use in the Georgia Medicaid population. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 14(9), 629–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chong, M. S., & Bajwa, Z. H. (2003). Diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 25(5 Suppl), S4–S11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cohen, S. P., Kapoor, S. G., & Rathmell, J. P. (2009). Intravenous infusion tests have limited utility for selecting long-term drug therapy in patients with chronic pain: A systematic review. Anesthesiology, 111(2), 416–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Couceiro, T. C., Menezes, T. C., & Valenca, M. M. (2009). Post-mastectomy pain syndrome: The magnitude of the problem. Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia, 59(3), 358–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Crombie, I. K., Davies, H. T., & Macrae, W. A. (1998). Cut and thrust: Antecedent surgery and trauma among patients attending a chronic pain clinic. Pain, 76(1–2), 167–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Davis, K. D., Meyer, R. A., & Campbell, J. N. (1993). Chemosensitivity and sensitization of nociceptive afferents that innervate the hairy skin of monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology, 69(4), 1071–1081.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. de Jong, J. R., Vlaeyen, J. W., Onghena, P., Cuypers, C., den Hollander, M., & Ruijgrok, J. (2005). Reduction of pain-related fear in complex regional pain syndrome type I: The application of graded exposure in vivo. Pain, 116(3), 264–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Kock, M. (2009). Expanding our horizons: Transition of acute postoperative pain to persistent pain and establishment of chronic postsurgical pain services. Anesthesiology, 111(3), 461–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. DeFrances, C. J., Lucas, C. A., Buie, V. C., & Golosinskiy, A. (2008). National hospital discharge survey. National Health Statistics Report, 5, 1–20.Google Scholar
  36. Devor, M. (2006). Response of nerves to injury in relation to neuropathic pain. In S. B. McMahon & M. Koltzenburg (Eds.), Textbook of pain (5th ed., pp. 905–927). New York: Elsevier Churchill Stone.Google Scholar
  37. Dickenson, A. H., & Kieffer, B. (2006). Opiates: Basic mechanisms. In S. B. McMahon & M. Koltzenburg (Eds.), Textbook of pain (5th ed., pp. 427–442). New York: Churchill-Livingstone.Google Scholar
  38. Diers, M., Christmann, C., Koeppe, C., Ruf, M., & Flor, H. (2010). Mirrored, imagined and executed movements ­differentially activate sensorimotor cortex in amputees with and without phantom limb pain. Pain, 149(2), 296–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Donovan, K. A., Thompson, L. M. A., & Jacobsen, P. B. (2011). Pain, depression and anxiety in cancer. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care: Biobehavioral approaches for the life course. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  40. Dougherty, P. M., Garrison, C. J., & Carlton, S. M. (1992). Differential influence of local anesthetic upon two models of experimentally induced peripheral mononeuropathy in the rat. Brain Research, 570(1–2), 109–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eisenberg, E., McNicol, E., & Carr, D. B. (2006). Opioids for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 3, CD006146.Google Scholar
  42. Eisenberg, E., Pultorak, Y., Pud, D., & Bar-El, Y. (2001). Prevalence and characteristics of post coronary artery bypass graft surgery pain (PCP). Pain, 92(1–2), 11–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fields, H. L., Basbaum, A. I., & Heinricher, M. M. (2006). Central nervous system mechanisms of pain modulation. In P. D. Wall, S. B. McMahon & M. Koltzenburg (Eds.), Wall and Melzack’s textbook of pain (5th ed., pp. 125–142). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fitzgibbon, E. J., & Viola, R. (2005). Parenteral ketamine as an analgesic adjuvant for severe pain: Development and retrospective audit of a protocol for a palliative care unit. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 8(1), 49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Foell, J., & Flor, H. (2011). Phantom limb pain. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care: Biobehavioral approaches for the life course. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  46. Forman, A. (1990). Peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients: Clinical types, etiology, and presentation. Part 2. Oncology (Williston Park), 4(2), 85–89.Google Scholar
  47. Fukuoka, T., Tokunaga, A., & Kondo, E. (2000). The role of neighboring intact dorsal root ganglion neurons in a rat neuropathic pain model. In M. Devor, M. Rowbotham, & Z. Wiesenfeld-Helm (Eds.), Progress in pain research and management (Vol. 16, pp. 137–146). Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  48. Furlan, A. D., Sandoval, J. A., Mailis-Gagnon, A., & Tunks, E. (2006). Opioids for chronic noncancer pain: A meta-analysis of effectiveness and side effects. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174(11), 1589–1594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gartner, R., Jensen, M. B., Nielsen, J., Ewertz, M., Kroman, N., & Kehlet, H. (2009). Prevalence of and factors associated with persistent pain following breast cancer surgery. JAMA, 302(18), 1985–1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Getto, C. J., Sorkness, C. A., & Howell, T. (1987). Issues in drug management. Part I. Antidepressants and chronic nonmalignant pain: A review. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 2(1), 9–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Giovannoni, M. P., Ghelardini, C., Vergelli, C., & Dal Piaz, V. (2009). Alpha2-agonists as analgesic agents. Medicinal Research Reviews, 29(2), 339–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Goldstein, D. J., Lu, Y., Detke, M. J., Lee, T. C., & Iyengar, S. (2005). Duloxetine vs. placebo in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Pain, 116(1–2), 109–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Goodyear-Smith, F., & Halliwell, J. (2009). Anticonvulsants for neuropathic pain: Gaps in the evidence. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 25(6), 528–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gotoda, Y., Kambara, N., Sakai, T., Kishi, Y., Kodama, K., & Koyama, T. (2001). The morbidity, time course and predictive factors for persistent post-thoracotomy pain. European Journal of Pain, 5(1), 89–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gottschalk, A., & Ochroch, E. A. (2008). Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with chronic pain after major thoracotomy. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 24(8), 708–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Granot, M., & Ferber, S. G. (2005). The roles of pain catastrophizing and anxiety in the prediction of postoperative pain intensity: A prospective study. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 21(5), 439–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Grant, A. M., Scott, N. W., & O’Dwyer, P. J. (2004). Five-year follow-up of a randomized trial to assess pain and numbness after laparoscopic or open repair of groin hernia. The British Journal of Surgery, 91(12), 1570–1574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Grisart, J. M., & Plaghki, L. H. (1999). Impaired selective attention in chronic pain patients. Eur J Pain, 3(4), 325–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Grudt, T. J., & Perl, E. R. (2002). Correlations between neuronal morphology and electrophysiological features in the rodent superficial dorsal horn. J Physiol, 540(Pt 1), 189–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Guenther, S., Reeh, P. W., & Kress, M. (1999). Rises in [Ca2+]i mediate capsaicin- and proton-induced heat sensitization of rat primary nociceptive neurons. The European Journal of Neuroscience, 11(9), 3143–3150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gulluoglu, B. M., Cingi, A., Cakir, T., Gercek, A., Barlas, A., & Eti, Z. (2006). Factors related to post-treatment chronic pain in breast cancer survivors: The interference of pain with life functions. International Journal of Fertility and Women’s Medicine, 51(2), 75–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Haanpaa, M. L., Gourlay, G. K., Kent, J. L., Miaskowski, C., Raja, S. N., Schmader, K. E., et al. (2010). Treatment considerations for patients with neuropathic pain and other medical comorbidities. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85(3 Suppl), S15–S25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Haley, J. E., Sullivan, A. F., & Dickenson, A. H. (1990). Evidence for spinal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor involvement in prolonged chemical nociception in the rat. Brain Research, 518(1–2), 218–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hanley, M. A., Jensen, M. P., Ehde, D. M., Hoffman, A. J., Patterson, D. R., & Robinson, L. R. (2004). Psychosocial predictors of long-term adjustment to lower-limb amputation and phantom limb pain. Disability and Rehabilitation, 26(14–15), 882–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Harden, R. N. (2005). Pharmacotherapy of complex regional pain syndrome. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 84(3 Suppl), S17–S28.Google Scholar
  66. Harden, R. N., Bruehl, S., Stanos, S., Brander, V., Chung, O. Y., Saltz, S., et al. (2003). Prospective examination of pain-related and psychological predictors of CRPS-like phenomena following total knee arthroplasty: A preliminary study. Pain, 106(3), 393–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hinrichs-Rocker, A., Schulz, K., Jarvinen, I., Lefering, R., Simanski, C., & Neugebauer, E. A. (2009). Psychosocial predictors and correlates for chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) – A systematic review. European Journal of Pain, 13(7), 719–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hsu, C., & Sliwa, J. A. (2004). Phantom breast pain as a source of functional loss. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 83(8), 659–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hurley, R. W., & Adams, M. C. (2008). Sex, gender, and pain: An overview of a complex field. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 107(1), 309–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jackson, K. C., II. (2006). Pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain. Pain Practice, 6(1), 27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jensen, M. P., Ehde, D. M., Hoffman, A. J., Patterson, D. R., Czerniecki, J. M., & Robinson, L. R. (2002). Cognitions, coping and social environment predict adjustment to phantom limb pain. Pain, 95(1–2), 133–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jensen, T. S., Krebs, B., Nielsen, J., & Rasmussen, P. (1983). Phantom limb, phantom pain and stump pain in amputees during the first 6 months following limb amputation. Pain, 17(3), 243–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jensen, T. S., Krebs, B., Nielsen, J., & Rasmussen, P. (1985). Immediate and long-term phantom limb pain in amputees: Incidence, clinical characteristics and relationship to pre-amputation limb pain. Pain, 21(3), 267–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Joshi, G. P., & Ogunnaike, B. O. (2005). Consequences of inadequate postoperative pain relief and chronic persistent postoperative pain. Anesthesiology Clinics of North America, 23(1), 21–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jung, A. C., Staiger, T., & Sullivan, M. (1997). The efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the management of chronic pain. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 12(6), 384–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jung, B. F., Ahrendt, G. M., Oaklander, A. L., & Dworkin, R. H. (2003). Neuropathic pain following breast cancer surgery: Proposed classification and research update. Pain, 104(1–2), 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Katz, J., & Clarke, H. (2008). Preventive analgesia and beyond: Current status, evidence, and future directions. In P. Macintyre, D. Rowbotham, & R. Howard (Eds.), Clinical pain management: Acute pain (pp. 154–198). London: Hodder Arnold Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Katz, J., Jackson, M., Kavanagh, B. P., & Sandler, A. N. (1996). Acute pain after thoracic surgery predicts long-term post-thoracotomy pain. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 12(1), 50–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Katz, J., & Melzack, R. (1990). Pain “memories” in phantom limbs: Review and clinical observations. Pain, 43(3), 319–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Katz, J., & Seltzer, Z. (2009). Transition from acute to chronic postsurgical pain: Risk factors and protective factors. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 9(5), 723–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Keefe, F. J., Brown, G. K., Wallston, K. A., & Caldwell, D. S. (1989). Coping with rheumatoid arthritis pain: Catastrophizing as a maladaptive strategy. Pain, 37(1), 51–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Keogh, E. (2011). Sex differences in pain across the life course. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care: Biobehavioral approaches for the life course. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  83. Khasar, S. G., McCarter, G., & Levine, J. D. (1999). Epinephrine produces a beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated mechanical hyperalgesia and in vitro sensitization of rat nociceptors. Journal of Neurophysiology, 81(3), 1104–1112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. King, E. W., Audette, K., Athman, G. A., Nguyen, H. O., Sluka, K. A., & Fairbanks, C. A. (2005). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation activates peripherally located alpha-2A adrenergic receptors. Pain, 115(3), 364–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kingery, W. S. (1997). A critical review of controlled clinical trials for peripheral neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndromes. Pain, 73(2), 123–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Knotkova, H., & Pappagallo, M. (2007). Adjuvant analgesics. The Medical Clinics of North America, 91(1), 113–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kooijman, C. M., Dijkstra, P. U., Geertzen, J. H., Elzinga, A., & van der Schans, C. P. (2000). Phantom pain and phantom sensations in upper limb amputees: An epidemiological study. Pain, 87(1), 33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kroman, N., Jensen, M. B., Wohlfahrt, J., Mouridsen, H. T., Andersen, P. K., & Melbye, M. (2000). Factors influencing the effect of age on prognosis in breast cancer: Population based study. BMJ, 320(7233), 474–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. LaMotte, R. H., Shain, C. N., Simone, D. A., & Tsai, E. F. (1991). Neurogenic hyperalgesia: Psychophysical studies of underlying mechanisms. Journal of Neurophysiology, 66(1), 190–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Latremoliere, A., & Woolf, C. J. (2009). Central sensitization: A generator of pain hypersensitivity by central neural plasticity. The Journal of Pain, 10(9), 895–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lavand’homme, P. M., & Eisenach, J. C. (2003). Perioperative administration of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine at the site of nerve injury reduces the development of mechanical hypersensitivity and modulates local cytokine expression. Pain, 105(1–2), 247–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Levine, J. D., Gordon, N. C., Smith, R., & Fields, H. L. (1982). Post-operative pain: Effect of extent of injury and attention. Brain Res, 234(2), 500–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Levy, D., & Strassman, A. M. (2002). Distinct sensitizing effects of the cAMP-PKA second messenger cascade on rat dural mechanonociceptors. The Journal of Physiology, 538(Pt 2), 483–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lorenz, J., & Tracey, I. (2009). Brain Correlates of Psychological Amplification of Pain. In E. A. Mayer & M. C. Bushnell (Eds.), Functional pain syndromes: Presentation and pathophysiology (pp. 385–401). Seattle: IASP Press.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lossignol, D. A., Obiols-Portis, M., & Body, J. J. (2005). Successful use of ketamine for intractable cancer pain. Supportive Care in Cancer, 13(3), 188–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Macrae, W. A. (2008). Chronic post-surgical pain: 10 years on. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 101(1), 77–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Macrae, W. A., & Davies, H. (1999). Chronic postsurgical pain. In I. K. Crombie (Ed.), Epidemiology of pain (pp. 125–142). Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  98. Manchikanti, L., Atluri, S., Trescot, A. M., & Giordano, J. (2008). Monitoring opioid adherence in chronic pain patients: Tools, techniques, and utility. Pain Physician, 11(2 Suppl), S155–S180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Martin, M. O., Gomez Sancho, M., Morlion, B., & Simpson, K. (2008). The management of pain due to amputation. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 22(1), 57–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mattia, A., & Coluzzi, F. (2009). What anesthesiologists should know about paracetamol (acetaminophen). Minerva Anestesiologica, 75(11), 644–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Mattia, C., & Coluzzi, F. (2005). COX-2 inhibitors: Pharmacological data and adverse effects. Minerva Anestesiologica, 71(7–8), 461–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Max, M. B., Lynch, S. A., Muir, J., Shoaf, S. E., Smoller, B., & Dubner, R. (1992). Effects of desipramine, amitriptyline, and fluoxetine on pain in diabetic neuropathy. The New England Journal of Medicine, 326(19), 1250–1256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. May, S. (2011). Chronic low back pain. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care: Biobehavioral approaches for the life course. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  104. Mayer, M. L., Westbrook, G. L., & Guthrie, P. B. (1984). Voltage-dependent block by Mg2+ of NMDA responses in spinal cord neurones. Nature, 309(5965), 261–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. McCarthy, G. C., Megalla, S. A., & Habib, A. S. (2010). Impact of intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative analgesia and recovery from surgery: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Drugs, 70(9), 1149–1163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. McCleane, G. (2007). Topical analgesics. The Medical Clinics of North America, 91(1), 125–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. McMahon, S. B., Bennett, D. L. H., & Bevan, S. (2006). Inflammatory mediators and modulators of pain. In S. B. McMahon & M. Koltzenburg (Eds.), Textbook of pain (5th ed., pp. 49–72). New York: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  108. Melzack, R., & Wall, P. D. (1965). Pain mechanisms: A new theory. Science, 150(699), 971–979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Merskey, H., & Bogduk, N. (1994). Classification of chronic pain. Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  110. Meyer, R. A., & Campbell, J. N. (1981). Myelinated nociceptive afferents account for the hyperalgesia that follows a burn to the hand. Science, 213(4515), 1527–1529.Google Scholar
  111. Meyer, R. A., Ringkamp, M., Campbell, J. N., & Raja, S. N. (2006). Peripheral mechanisms of cutaneous nociception. In S. B. McMahon & M. Koltzenburg (Eds.), Textbook of pain (5th ed., pp. 3–34). New York: Churchill Livingston.Google Scholar
  112. Meyerson, J., Thelin, S., Gordh, T., & Karlsten, R. (2001). The incidence of chronic post-sternotomy pain after cardiac surgery – A prospective study. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 45(8), 940–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Michael, G. J., & Priestley, J. V. (1999). Differential expression of the mRNA for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cells of the adult rat dorsal root and nodose ganglia and its downregulation by axotomy. The Journal of Neuroscience, 19(5), 1844–1854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Miron, D., Duncan, G. H., & Bushnell, M. C. (1989). Effects of attention on the intensity and unpleasantness of ­thermal pain. Pain, 39(3), 345–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Munir, M. A., Enany, N., & Zhang, J. M. (2007). Nonopioid analgesics. Anesthesiol Clin, 25(4), 761–774, vi.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Naim, M., Spike, R. C., Watt, C., Shehab, S. A., & Todd, A. J. (1997). Cells in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal cord that possess the neurokinin-1 receptor and have dorsally directed dendrites receive a major synaptic input from tachykinin-containing primary afferents. J Neurosci, 17(14), 5536–5548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Naylor, M. R., Seminowicz, D. A., Somers, T. J., & Keefe, F. J. (2011). Pain imaging. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care: Biobehavioral approaches for the life course. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  118. Nikolajsen, L., Ilkjaer, S., Kroner, K., Christensen, J. H., & Jensen, T. S. (1997). The influence of preamputation pain on postamputation stump and phantom pain. Pain, 72(3), 393–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Nikolajsen, L., & Jensen, T. S. (2001). Phantom limb pain. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 87(1), 107–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Nikolajsen, L., Sorensen, H. C., Jensen, T. S., & Kehlet, H. (2004). Chronic pain following Caesarean section. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 48(1), 111–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Nocom, G., Ho, K. Y., & Perumal, M. (2009). Interventional management of chronic pain. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, 38(2), 150–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Okifuji, A., & Ackerlind, S. (2007). Behavioral medicine approaches to pain. The Medical Clinics of North America, 91(1), 45–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Okon, T. (2007). Ketamine: An introduction for the pain and palliative medicine physician. Pain Physician, 10(3), 493–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Okuse, K. (2007). Pain signalling pathways: From cytokines to ion channels. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 39(3), 490–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Pae, C. U., Marks, D. M., Shah, M., Han, C., Ham, B. J., Patkar, A. A., et al. (2009). Milnacipran: Beyond a role of antidepressant. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 32(6), 355–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Papp, J., & Sobel, E. (2009). The Genetics of Pain. In E. A. Mayer & M. C. Bushnell (Eds.), Functional pain ­syndromes: Presentation and pathophysiology (pp. 405–422). Seattle: IASP Press.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pavlin, D. J., Sullivan, M. J., Freund, P. R., & Roesen, K. (2005). Catastrophizing: A risk factor for postsurgical pain. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 21(1), 83–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Peters, M. L., Sommer, M., de Rijke, J. M., Kessels, F., Heineman, E., Patijn, J., et al. (2007). Somatic and psychologic predictors of long-term unfavorable outcome after surgical intervention. Annals of Surgery, 245(3), 487–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Poleshuck, E. L., Katz, J., Andrus, C. H., Hogan, L. A., Jung, B. F., Kulick, D. I., et al. (2006). Risk factors for chronic pain following breast cancer surgery: A prospective study. The Journal of Pain, 7(9), 626–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Pollo, A., & Benedetti, F. (2011). Pain and the placebo/nocebo effect. In R. J. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of pain and palliative care: Biobehavioral approaches for the life course. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  131. Poobalan, A. S., Bruce, J., Smith, W. C., King, P. M., Krukowski, Z. H., & Chambers, W. A. (2003). A review of chronic pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy. Clin J Pain, 19(1), 48–54.Google Scholar
  132. Porter, R. J., & Meldrum, B. S. (2001). Antiseizure drugs. In B. G. Katzung (Ed.), Basic and clinical pharmacology (8th ed., pp. 395–418). New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  133. Price, D. D., Verne, G. N., & Schwartz, J. M. (2006). Plasticity in brain processing and modulation of pain. Prog Brain Res, 157, 333–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rectenwald, J. E., & Upchurch, G. R., Jr. (2007). Impact of outcomes research on the management of vascular surgery patients. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 45(Suppl A), A131–A140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Reeh, P. W., Bayer, J., Kocher, L., & Handwerker, H. O. (1987). Sensitization of nociceptive cutaneous nerve fibers from the rat’s tail by noxious mechanical stimulation. Experimental Brain Research, 65(3), 505–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Rexed, B. (1952). The cytoarchitectonic organization of the spinal cord in the cat. J Comp Neurol, 96(3), 414–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rogers, M. L., & Duffy, J. P. (2000). Surgical aspects of chronic post-thoracotomy pain. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 18(6), 711–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Rowbotham, M. C., Goli, V., Kunz, N. R., & Lei, D. (2004). Venlafaxine extended release in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pain, 110(3), 697–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Rowbotham, M. C., Reisner, L. A., Davies, P. S., & Fields, H. L. (2005). Treatment response in antidepressant-naive postherpetic neuralgia patients: Double-blind, randomized trial. The Journal of Pain, 6(11), 741–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sanchez, C., & Hyttel, J. (1999). Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines and on receptor binding. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 19(4), 467–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sawamoto, N., Honda, M., Okada, T., Hanakawa, T., Kanda, M., Fukuyama, H., et al. (2000). Expectation of pain enhances responses to nonpainful somatosensory stimulation in the anterior cingulate cortex and parietal operculum/posterior insula: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurosci, 20(19), 7438–7445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Schaible, H. G., & Richter, F. (2004). Pathophysiology of pain. Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery, 389(4), 237–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Sclafani, L. M., & Baron, R. H. (2008). Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection: Added morbidity of the arm, shoulder and chest wall after mastectomy and reconstruction. Cancer Journal, 14(4), 216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Seltzer, Z., Wu, T., Max, M. B., & Diehl, S. R. (2001). Mapping a gene for neuropathic pain-related behavior following peripheral neurectomy in the mouse. Pain, 93(2), 101–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sepulveda, C., Marlin, A., Yoshida, T., & Ullrich, A. (2002). Palliative care: The World Health Organization’s global perspective. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 24(2), 91–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Sherman, R. A., & Sherman, C. J. (1983). Prevalence and characteristics of chronic phantom limb pain among American veterans. Results of a trial survey. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 62(5), 227–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Silverman, S. M. (2009). Opioid induced hyperalgesia: Clinical implications for the pain practitioner. Pain Physician, 12(3), 679–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Sluka, K. A. (2009). Peripheral mechanisms involved in pain processing. In K. A. Sluka (Ed.), Mechanisms and management of pain for the physical therapist (pp. 19–40). Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  149. Smith, J., & Thompson, J. M. (1995). Phantom limb pain and chemotherapy in pediatric amputees. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 70(4), 357–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Solano, J. P., Gomes, B., & Higginson, I. J. (2006). A comparison of symptom prevalence in far advanced cancer, AIDS, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and renal disease. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 31(1), 58–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Stacey, B. R. (2005). Management of peripheral neuropathic pain. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 84(3 Suppl), S4–S16.Google Scholar
  152. Stanos, S. P., McLean, J., & Rader, L. (2007). Physical medicine rehabilitation approach to pain. The Medical Clinics of North America, 91(1), 57–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Stiff, G., Rhodes, M., Kelly, A., Telford, K., Armstrong, C. P., & Rees, B. I. (1994). Long-term pain: Less common after laparoscopic than open cholecystectomy. The British Journal of Surgery, 81(9), 1368–1370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Tasmuth, T., Blomqvist, C., & Kalso, E. (1999). Chronic post-treatment symptoms in patients with breast cancer operated in different surgical units. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 25(1), 38–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Tasmuth, T., Estlanderb, A. M., & Kalso, E. (1996). Effect of present pain and mood on the memory of past postoperative pain in women treated surgically for breast cancer. Pain, 68(2–3), 343–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Tate, S., Benn, S., Hick, C., Trezise, D., John, V., Mannion, R. J., et al. (1998). Two sodium channels contribute to the TTX-R sodium current in primary sensory neurons. Nature Neuroscience, 1(8), 653–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Thalhammer, J. G., & LaMotte, R. H. (1982). Spatial properties of nociceptor sensitization following heat injury of the skin. Brain Research, 231(2), 257–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Thompson, A. R. (2007). Recognizing chronic postsurgical pain syndromes at the end of life. American Journal of Hospice Palliative Care, 24(4), 319–322; discussion 322–314.Google Scholar
  159. Todd, A. J. (2010). Neuronal circuitry for pain processing in the dorsal horn. Nat Rev Neurosci, 11(12), 823–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Tracey, I., Ploghaus, A., Gati, J. S., Clare, S., Smith, S., Menon, R. S., et al. (2002). Imaging attentional modulation of pain in the periaqueductal gray in humans. J Neurosci, 22(7), 2748–2752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Ure, B. M., Jesch, N. K., & Nustede, R. (2004). Postcholecystectomy syndrome with special regard to children – A review. European Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 14(4), 221–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Vermelis, J. M., Wassen, M. M., Fiddelers, A. A., Nijhuis, J. G., & Marcus, M. A. (2010). Prevalence and predictors of chronic pain after labor and delivery. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, 23(3), 295–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Villemure, C., & Bushnell, M. C. (2002). Cognitive modulation of pain: How do attention and emotion influence pain processing? Pain, 95(3), 195–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wartan, S. W., Hamann, W., Wedley, J. R., & McColl, I. (1997). Phantom pain and sensation among British veteran amputees. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 78(6), 652–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Way, W. L., Fields, H. L., & Schumacher, M. A. (2001). Opioid analgesics and antagonists. In B. G. Katzung (Ed.), Basic and clinical pharmacology (8th ed., pp. 512–531). New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  166. Wiffen, P., Collins, S., McQuay, H., Carroll, D., Jadad, A., & Moore, A. (2005). Anticonvulsant drugs for acute and chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (3), CD001133.Google Scholar
  167. Wilsey, B., Teicheira, D., Caneris, O. A., & Fishman, S. M. (2001). A review of sympathetically maintained pain syndromes in the cancer pain population: The spectrum of ambiguous entities of RSD, CRPS, SMP and other pain states related to the sympathetic nervous system. Pain Practice, 1(4), 307–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Wilt, T. J., Shamliyan, T. A., Taylor, B. C., MacDonald, R., & Kane, R. L. (2008). Association between hospital and surgeon radical prostatectomy volume and patient outcomes: A systematic review. Journal of Urology, 180(3), 820–828; discussion 828–829.Google Scholar
  169. Woolf, C. J., & Costigan, M. (1999). Transcriptional and posttranslational plasticity and the generation of inflammatory pain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96(14), 7723–7730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Woolf, C. J., & Mannion, R. J. (1999). Neuropathic pain: Aetiology, symptoms, mechanisms, and management. Lancet, 353(9168), 1959–1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Woolf, C. J., & Salter, M. W. (2000). Neuronal plasticity: Increasing the gain in pain. Science, 288(5472), 1765–1769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Woolf, C. J., & Salter, M. W. (2006). Plasticity and pain: Role of the dorsal horn. In S. B. McMahon & M. Koltzenburg (Eds.), Textbook of pain (5th ed., pp. 91–105). New York: Churchill-Livingstone.Google Scholar
  173. Wu, G., Ringkamp, M., Hartke, T. V., Murinson, B. B., Campbell, J. N., Griffin, J. W., et al. (2001). Early onset of spontaneous activity in uninjured C-fiber nociceptors after injury to neighboring nerve fibers. The Journal of Neuroscience, 21(8), RC140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Xie, Y. K., Xiao, W. H., & Li, H. Q. (1993). The relationship between new ion channels and ectopic discharges from a region of nerve injury. Science in China, Series B, 36(1), 68–74.Google Scholar
  175. Yamamoto, T., & Yaksh, T. L. (1991). Stereospecific effects of a nonpeptidic NK1 selective antagonist, CP-96,345: Antinociception in the absence of motor dysfunction. Life Sciences, 49(26), 1955–1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Yarnitsky, D., Crispel, Y., Eisenberg, E., Granovsky, Y., Ben-Nun, A., Sprecher, E., et al. (2008). Prediction of chronic post-operative pain: Pre-operative DNIC testing identifies patients at risk. Pain, 138(1), 22–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Alabama School of MedicineBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pain Medicine, Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public HealthBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations