Transparent Conductors

  • David S. Ginley
  • John D. Perkins


Over the last 6 years the field of transparent conducting oxides has had a dramatic increase in interest with a huge influx in the number of active groups and the diversity of materials and approaches. Why? There are a number of primary motivators for this, some of the most compelling are the increase in portable electronics, displays, flexible electronics, multi-functional windows, solar cells and, most recently, transistors. The diverse nature of the materials integrated into these devices, including semiconductors, molecular and polymer organics, ceramics, glass, metal and plastic, have necessitated the need for TCO materials with new performance, processibility and even morphology. The remarkable applications dependent on these materials have continued to make sweeping strides. These include the advent of larger flat-screen high-definition televisions (HDTVs including LCD, Plasma and OLED based displays), larger and higher-resolution flat screens for portable computers, the increasing importance of energy-efficient low-emittance (“low-e”), solar control and electrochromic windows, a dramatic increase in the manufacturing of thin film photovoltaics (PV), the advent of oxide based transistors and transparent electronics as well as a plethora of new hand-held, flexible and smart devices, all with smart displays.


Indium Oxide Transparent Conducting Oxide Transparent Conductor Flexible Electronic Indium Zinc Oxide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) funded this work. NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory operated by Midwest Research Institute-Battelle-Bechtel under contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337.


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© Springer US 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Renewable Energy LaboratoryGoldenUSA

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