• Charles B. Whitlow


The large intestine from cecum to anus can be effectively and accurately examined as part of a complete physical examination. An ultimate diagnosis of large bowel diseases can only be made by direct observation of the abnormalities and, if indicated, a biopsy. Different equipment is designed and used for different purposes.



This chapter was written by Santhat Nivatvongs and Kenneth E. Forde in the first edition of this textbook.


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Copyright information

© ASCRS (American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles B. Whitlow
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Colon and Rectal SurgeryOchsner Medical CenterNew OrleansUSA

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