Advanced Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery

  • Tonia Young-Fadok


Since the first edition of this textbook, advances in laparoscopic colorectal surgery have been made in the arenas of education, research, and practice. In education, the vast majority of, if not all, trainees now finishing colorectal surgery fellowships have learned laparoscopic techniques. All laparoscopic colorectal procedures continue to be considered advanced procedures and are considered as such in this chapter. In the research arena, a multicenter randomized controlled trial is in progress evaluating the safety and other outcomes of laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer. In clinical practice, single-incision laparoscopic surgery has sparked interest in making these procedures even less invasive, and there is at least intellectual and experimental interest in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) even though this approach has not yet made its way into practice. This chapter will review these issues and provide an assessment of the use of laparoscopic techniques for the common disease processes seen by colorectal surgeons.


  1. 1.
    Simons AJ, Anthone GJ, Ortega AE, et al. Laparoscopic assisted colectomy learning curve. Dis Colon Rectum. 1995;38:600–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Senagore AJ, Luchtefeld MA, Mackeigan JM. What is the learning curve for laparoscopic colectomy? Am Surg. 1995;61:681–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wishner JD, Baker JWJ, Hoffman GC, et al. Laparoscopic assisted colectomy. The learning curve. Surg Endosc. 1995;9:1179–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Park IJ, Choi GS, Lim KH, Kang BM, Jun SH. Multidimensional analysis of the learning curve for laparoscopic colorectal surgery: lessons from 1,000 cases of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Surg Endosc. 2009;23:839–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guillou PJ, Quirke P, Thorpe H, et al. Short-term endpoints of conventional vs. laparoscopic-assisted surgery in patients with colorectal cancer (MRC-CLASICC trial): multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;365:1718–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    The COLOR Study Group. Impact of hospital case volume on short-term outcome after laparoscopic operation for colonic cancer. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:687–92.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hyman N. How much colorectal surgery do general surgeons do? J Am Coll Surg. 2002;194:37–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tuech JJ, Regenet N, Hennekinne S, et al. Laparoscopic colectomy for sigmoid diverticulitis in obese and nonobese patients: a prospective comparative study. Surg Endosc. 2001;15:1427–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stern LE, Chang YJ, Marcello PW, et al. Is obesity a contraindication to laparoscopic colectomy? A case control study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:583.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Delaney CP, Pokala N, Senagore AJ, et al. Is laparoscopic colectomy applicable to patients with body mass index >30? A case-matched comparative study with open colectomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:975–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bauer JJ, Harris MT, Grumbach NM, et al. Laparoscopic assisted intestinal resection for Crohn’s disease. Which patients are good candidates? J Clin Gastroenterol. 1996;23:44–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sher ME, Agachan F, Bortul JJ, et al. Laparoscopic surgery for diverticulitis. Surg Endosc. 1997;11:264–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pokala N, Delaney CP, Brady KM, Senagore AJ. Elective laparoscopic surgery for benign internal enteric fistulas: a review of 43 cases. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:222–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bartus CM, Lipof T, Sarwar S, et al. Colovesical fistula: not a contraindication to elective laparoscopic colectomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:233–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Regan JP, Salky BA. Laparoscopic treatment of enteric fistulas. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:252–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Young-Fadok TM, COST Study Group. Conversion does not adversely affect oncologic outcomes after laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer: results from a multicenter prospective randomized study [abstract]. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:637–8.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Casillas S, Delaney CP, Senagore AJ, et al. Does conversion of a laparoscopic colectomy adversely affect patient outcome? Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:1680–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bohm B, Milsom JW, Fazio VW. Postoperative intestinal motility following conventional and laparoscopic intestinal surgery. Arch Surg. 1995;130:415–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bessler M, Whelan RL, Halverson A, et al. Controlled trial of laparoscopic-assisted vs open colon resection in a porcine model. Surg Endosc. 1996;10:732–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hotokezaka M, Combs MJ, Schirmer BD. Recovery of ­gastrointestinal motility following open versus laparoscopic colon resection in dogs. Dig Dis Sci. 1996;41:705–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Milsom JW, Bohm B, Hammerhofer KA, et al. A prospective, randomized trial comparing laparoscopic versus conventional techniques in colorectal cancer surgery: a preliminary report. J Am Coll Surg. 1998;187:46–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stage JG, Schulze S, Moller P, et al. Prospective randomized study of laparoscopic versus open colonic resection for adenocarcinoma. Br J Surg. 1997;84:391–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schwenk W, Böhm W, Müller JM. Postoperative pain and fatigue after laparoscopic or conventional colorectal resections: a prospective randomized trial. Surg Endosc. 1998;12:1131–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Weeks JC, Nelson H, Gelber S, et al. Short-term quality-of-life outcomes following laparoscopic-assisted colectomy vs open colectomy for colon cancer: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2002;287:321–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fleshman JW, Fry RD, Birnbaum EH, et al. Laparoscopic assisted and minilaparotomy approaches to colorectal diseases are similar in early outcome. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39:15–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Senagore AJ, Duepree HJ, Delaney CP, et al. Results of a standardized technique and postoperative care plan for laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46:503–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Raue W, Haase O, Junghans T, et al. “Fast-track” multimodal rehabilitation program improves outcome after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:1463–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Psaila J, Bulley SH, Ewings P, et al. Outcome following laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer. Br J Surg. 1998;85:662–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nelson H, The Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Therapy Study Group. A comparison of laparoscopically assisted and open colectomy for colon cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2050–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen HH, Wexner SD, Weiss EG, et al. Laparoscopic colectomy for benign colorectal disease is associated with a significant reduction in disability as compared with laparotomy. Surg Endosc. 1998;12:1397–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Young-Fadok TM, Hall Long K, McConnell EJ, et al. Advantages of laparoscopic resection for ileocolic Crohn’s disease. Improved outcomes and reduced costs. Surg Endosc. 2001;15:450–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dupree HJ, Senagore AJ, Delaney CP, et al. Advantages of laparoscopic resection for ileocecal Crohn’s disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002;45:605–10.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shore G, Gonzalez QH, Bondora A, et al. Laparoscopic vs. conventional ileocolectomy for primary Crohn’s disease. Arch Surg. 2003;138:76–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Senagore AJ, Duepree HJ, Delaney CP, et al. Cost structure of laparoscopic and open sigmoid colectomy for diverticular disease: similarities and differences. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002;45:485–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dwivedi A, Chachin F, Agrawal S, et al. Laparoscopic colectomy vs. open colectomy for sigmoid diverticular disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002;45:1309–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wu JS, Birnbaum EH, Kodner IJ, et al. Laparoscopic-assisted ileocolic resections in patients with Crohn’s disease: are abscesses, phlegmons, or recurrent disease contraindications? Surgery. 1997;122:682–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dunker MS, Stiggelbout AM, van Hogezand RA, et al. Cosmesis and body image after laparoscopic-assisted and open ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease. Surg Endosc. 1998;12:1334–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wong SK, Marcello PW, Hammerhoffer KA, et al. Laparoscopic surgery for Crohn’s disease: an analysis of 92 cases. Surg Endosc. 1999;13:S4.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Canin-Endres J, Salky B, Gattorno F, et al. Laparoscopic assisted intestinal resection in 88 patients with Crohn’s disease. Surg Endosc. 1999;13:595–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Alabaz O, Irotulam AJ, Nessim A, et al. Comparison of laparoscopically assisted and conventional ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease. Eur J Surg. 2000;166:213–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bemelman WA, Slors JFM, Dunker MS, et al. Laparoscopic assisted vs open ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease: a comparative study. Surg Endosc. 2000;14:721–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schmidt M, Talamini MA, Kaufman HS, et al. Laparoscopic surgery for Crohn’s disease: a single institution experience. Ann Surg. 2001;233:733–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Milsom JW, Hammerhofer KA, Bohm B, et al. A prospective, randomized trial comparing laparoscopic versus conventional surgery for refractory ileocolic Crohn’s disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001;44:1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Evans J, Poritz L, MacRae H. Influence of experience on laparoscopic ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002;45:1595–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Benoist S, Panis Y, Beaufour A, et al. Laparoscopic ileocecal resection in Crohn’s disease: a case-matched comparison with open resection. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:814–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tabet J, Hong D, Kim CW, et al. Recurrence after laparoscopic bowel resection for Crohn’s disease: comparison to open technique. Can J Gastroenterol. 2001;15:237–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bergamaschi R, Pessaux P, Arneaud JP. Comparison of conventional and laparoscopic ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46:1129–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Meijerink WJH, Eijsbouts QAJ, Cuesta MA, et al. Laparoscopically assisted bowel surgery for inflammatory bowel disease. Surg Endosc. 1999;13:882–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Huilgol RL, Wright CM, Solomon MJ. Laparoscopic versus open ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2004;14:61–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rosman AS, Melis M, Fichera A. Metaanalysis of trials comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for Crohn’s disease. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:1549–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tilney HS, Constantinides VA, Heriot AG, Nicolaou M, Athanasiou T, Ziprin P, et al. Comparison of laparoscopic and open ileocecal resection for Crohn’s disease: a metaanalysis. Surg Endosc. 2006;20:1036–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tan JJ, Tjandra JJ. Laparoscopic surgery for Crohn’s disease: a meta-analysis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2007;50:576–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lesperance K, Martin MJ, Lehmann R, Brounts L, Steele SR. National trends and outcomes for the surgical therapy of ileocolonic Crohn’s disease: a population-based analysis of laparoscopic vs. open approaches. J Gastrointest Surg. 2009;13:1251–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Soop M, Larson DW, Malireddy K, Cima RR, Young-Fadok TM, Dozois EJ. Safety, feasibility, and short-term outcomes of laparoscopically assisted primary ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease. Surg Endosc. 2009;23:1876–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nguyen SQ, Teitelbaum E, Sabnis AA, Bonaccorso A, ­Tabrizian P, Salky B. Laparoscopic resection for Crohn’s disease: an experience with 335 cases. Surg Endosc. 2009;23:2380–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Marcello PW, Fleshman JW, Milsom JW, Read TE, Arnell TD, Birnbaum EH, et al. Hand-assisted laparoscopic vs. laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a multicenter, prospective, randomized trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008;51:818–26. discussion 826–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Polle SW, Dunker MS, Slors JF, Sprangers MA, Cuesta MA, Gouma DJ, et al. Body image, cosmesis, quality of life, and functional outcome of hand-assisted laparoscopic versus open restorative proctocolectomy: long-term results of a randomized trial. Surg Endosc. 2007;21:1301–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Marcello PW, Milsom JW, Wong SK, et al. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy: a case-matched comparative study with open restorative proctocolectomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000;43:604–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Seshadri PA, Poulin EC, Schlachta CM, et al. Laparoscopic total colectomy and proctocolectomy: short and long term results. Surg Endosc. 2001;15:837–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hamel C, Hilderbrandt U, Weiss E, et al. Laparoscopic surgery for inflammatory bowel disease: ileocolic resection versus subtotal colectomy. Surg Endosc. 2001;15:642–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Marcello PW, Milsom JW, Wong SK, et al. Laparoscopic total colectomy for acute colitis: a case control study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001;44:1441–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brown SR, Eu KW, Seow-Choen F. Consecutive series of laparoscopic-assisted vs. minilaparotomy restorative proctocolectomies. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001;44:397–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dunker MS, Bemelman WA, Slors JF, et al. Functional outcome, quality of life, body image, and cosmesis in patients after laparoscopic-assisted and conventional restorative proctocolectomy: a comparative study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001;44:1800–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ky AJ, Sonoda T, Milsom JW. One-stage laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy: an alternative to the conventional approach? Dis Colon Rectum. 2002;45:207–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bell RL, Seymour NE. Laparoscopic treatment of fulminant ulcerative colitis. Surg Endosc. 2002;16:1778–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rivadeneira DE, Marcello PW, Roberts PL, et al. Benefits of hand-assisted laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy: a comparative study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:1371–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kienle P, Weitz J, Benner A, et al. Laparoscopically assisted colectomy and ileoanal pouch procedure with and without protective ileostomy. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:716–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nakajima K, Lee SW, Cocilovo C, et al. Hand assisted laparoscopic colorectal surgery using Gelport: initial experience with a new hand access device. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:102–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Schmitt SL, Cohen SM, Wexner SD, et al. Does laparoscopic assisted ileal pouch anal anastomosis reduce the length of hospitalization? Int J Colorectal Dis. 1994;9:134–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Maartense S, Dunker MS, Slors JF, Cuesta MA, Gouma DJ, van Deventer SJ, et al. Hand-assisted laparoscopic versus open restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis: a randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2004;240:984–91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Larson DW, Cima RR, Dozois EJ, Davies M, Piotrowicz K, Barnes SA, et al. Safety, feasibility, and short-term outcomes of laparoscopic ileal-pouch-anal anastomosis: a single institutional case-matched experience. Ann Surg. 2006;243:667–70. discussion 670–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zhang H, Hu S, Zhang G, Wang K, Chen B, Li B, et al. Laparoscopic versus open proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol. 2007;16:187–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Benavente-Chenhalls L, Mathis KL, Dozois EJ, Cima RR, Pemberton JH, Larson DW. Laparoscopic ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with chronic ulcerative colitis and ­primary sclerosing cholangitis: a case-matched study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008;51:549–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ahmed Ali U, Keus F, Heikens JT, Bemelman WA, Berdah SV, Gooszen HG, van Laarhoven CJ. Open versus laparoscopic (assisted) ileo pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(1):CD006267.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fichera A, Silvestri MT, Hurst RD, Rubin MA, Michelassi F. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis: a comparative observational study on long-term functional results. J Gastrointest Surg. 2009;13:526–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chung TP, Fleshman JW, Birnbaum EH, Hunt SR, Dietz DW, Read TE, et al. Laparoscopic vs. open total abdominal colectomy for severe colitis: impact on recovery and subsequent completion restorative proctectomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009;52:4–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wexner SD, Johansen OB, Nogueras JJ, Jagelman DG. Laparoscopic total abdominal colectomy. A prospective trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 1992;35:651–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Reissman P, Salky BA, Pfeifer J, et al. Laparoscopic surgery in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Surg. 1996;171:47–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cohen Z, Senagore AJ, Dayton MT, Koruda MJ, Beck DE, Wolff BG, et al. Prevention of postoperative abdominal adhesions by a novel, glycerol/sodium hyaluronate/­carboxymethylcellulose-based bioresorbable membrane: a prospective, randomized, evaluator-blinded multicenter study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:1130–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Indar AA, Efron JE, Young-Fadok TM. Laparoscopic ileal pouch-anal anastomosis reduces abdominal and pelvic adhesions. Surg Endosc. 2009;23:174–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Eijsbouts QA, Cuesta MA, de Brauw LM, et al. Elective ­laparoscopic-assisted sigmoid resection for diverticular disease. Surg Endosc. 1997;11:750–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Stevenson AR, Stitz RW, Lumley JW, et al. Laparoscopically assisted anterior resection for diverticular disease: follow-up of 100 consecutive patients. Ann Surg. 1998;227:335–42.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tuech JJ, Pessaux P, Rouge C, et al. Laparoscopic vs open colectomy for sigmoid diverticulitis: a prospective comparative study in the elderly. Surg Endosc. 2000;14:1031–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Trebuchet G, Lechaux D, Leclave JL. Laparoscopic left colon resection for diverticular disease: results of 170 consecutive cases. Surg Endosc. 2002;16:18–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bouillot JL, Berthou JC, Champault G, et al. Elective laparoscopic colonic resection for diverticular disease. Surg Endosc. 2002;16:1320–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pugliese R, Di Lernia S, Sansonna F, et al. Laparoscopic treatment of sigmoid diverticulitis: a retrospective review of 103 cases. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:1344–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schneidbach H, Schneider C, Rose J, et al. Laparoscopic approach to treatment of sigmoid diverticulitis: changes in the spectrum of indications and results of a prospective, multicenter study on 1545 patients. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:1883–8.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pessaux P, Muscari F, Ouellet JF, et al. Risk factors for mortality and morbidity after elective sigmoid resection for diverticulitis: prospective multicenter multivariate analysis of 582 patients. World J Surg. 2004;28:92–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Schwandner O, Farke S, Bruch HP. Laparoscopic colectomy for diverticulitis is not associated with increased morbidity when compared with nondiverticular disease. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2005;20:165–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jones OM, Stevenson AR, Clark D, Stitz RW, Lumley JW. Laparoscopic resection for diverticular disease: follow-up of 500 consecutive patients. Ann Surg. 2008;248:1092–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Liberman MA, Phillips EH, Carroll BJ, et al. Laparoscopic colectomy vs traditional colectomy for diverticulitis. Outcome and costs. Surg Endosc. 1996;10:15–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bruce CJ, Coller JA, Murray JJ, et al. Laparoscopic resection for diverticular disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39:S1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kohler L, Rixen D, Troidl H. Laparoscopic colorectal resection for diverticulitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 1998;13:43–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lawrence DM, Pasquale MD, Wasser TE. Laparoscopic versus open sigmoid colectomy for diverticulitis. Am Surg. 2003;69:499–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gonzalez R, Smith CD, Mattar SG, et al. Laparoscopic vs open resection for the treatment of diverticular disease. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:276–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Alves A, Panis Y, Slim K, Heyd B, Kwiatkowski F, MAntion G. Association Francais de Chirurgie. French multicentre prospective observational study of laparoscopic versus open colectomy for sigmoid diverticular disease. Br J Surg. 2005;92:1520–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lee SW, Yoo J, Dujovny N, Sonoda T, Milsom JW. Laparoscopic vs. hand-assisted laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006;49:464–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Shapiro SB, Lambert PJ, Mathiason MA. A comparison of open and laparoscopic techniques in elective resection for diverticular disease. WMJ. 2008;107:287–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Chang YJ, Marcello PW, Rusin LC, et al. Hand assisted laparoscopic colectomy: a helping hand or hindrance? Surg Endosc. 2005;19:656–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rink AD, John-Enzenauer K, Haaf F, Straub E, Nagelschmidt M, Vestweber KH. Laparoscopic-assisted or laparoscopic-facilitated sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease? A prospective randomized trial on postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009;52:1738–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Myers E, Hurley M, O’Sullivan GC, Kavanagh D, Wilson I, Winter DC. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for generalized peritonitis due to perforated diverticulitis. Br J Surg. 2008;95:97–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Franklin Jr ME, Portillo G, Trevino JM, Gonzalez JJ, Glass JL. Long-term experience with the laparoscopic approach to perforated diverticulitis plus generalized peritonitis. World J Surg. 2008;32:1507–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Alamili M, Gogenur I, Rosenberg J. Acute complicated diverticulitis managed by laparoscopic lavage. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009;52:1345–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Berman IR. Sutureless laparoscopic rectopexy for procidentia: technique and implications. Dis Colon Rectum. 1992;35:689–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kwok SP, Carey DP, Lau WY, Li AK. Laparoscopic rectopexy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1994;37:947–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Cuschieri A, Shimi SM, Vander Velpen G, et al. Laparoscopic prosthesis fixation rectopexy for rectal prolapse. Br J Surg. 1994;81:38–9.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Graf W, Stefanson T, Arvidson D, Pahlmann L. Laparoscopic suture rectopexy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1995;38:211–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Darzi A, Henery MM, Guillou PJ, et al. Stapled laparoscopic rectopexy for rectal prolapse. Surg Endosc. 1995;9:301–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Solomon MJ, Eyers AA. Laparoscopic rectopexy using mesh fixation with a spiked chromium staple. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39:279–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Poen AC, de Brauw M, Felt-Bersma RJ, et al. Laparoscopic rectopexy for complete rectal prolapse. Clinical outcome and anorectal function tests. Surg Endosc. 1996;10:904–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Himpens J, Cadiere GB, Brutns J, Vertruyen M. Laparoscopic rectopexy according to Wells. Surg Endosc. 1999;13:139–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Stevenson AR, Stitz RW, Lumley JW. Laparoscopic-assisted resection rectopexy for rectal prolapse: early and medium follow-up. Dis Colon Rectum. 1998;41:46–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bruch HP, Herold A, Schiedeck T, Schwandner O. Laparoscopic surgery for rectal prolapse and outlet obstruction. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:1189–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Boccasanta P, Venturi M, Reitano MC, et al. Laparotomic vs. laparoscopic rectopexy in complete rectal prolapse. Dig Surg. 1999;16:415–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Xynos E, Chrysos E, Tsiaoussis J, et al. Resection rectopexy for rectal prolapse: the laparoscopic approach. Surg Endosc. 1999;13:862–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kessler H, Jerby BL, Milsom JW. Successful treatment of rectal prolapse by laparoscopic suture rectopexy. Surg Endosc. 1999;13:858–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Heah SM, Hartley JE, Hurley J, et al. Laparoscopic suture rectopexy without resection is effective treatment for full thickness rectal prolapse. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000;43:638–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kellokumpu IH, Vironen J, Scheinin T. Laparoscopic repair of rectal prolapse: a prospective study evaluating surgical outcome and changes in symptoms and bowel function. Surg Endosc. 2000;14:634–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Benoist S, Taffinder N, Gould S, et al. Functional results two years after laparoscopic rectopexy. Am J Surg. 2001;182:168–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Solomon MJ, Young CJ, Eyers AA, Roberts RA. Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic versus open abdominal rectopexy for rectal prolapse. Br J Surg. 2002;89:35–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kairaluoma MV, Viljakka MT, Kellokumpu IH. Open vs. laparoscopic surgery for rectal prolapse: a case-controlled study assessing short-term outcomes. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46:353–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    D’Hoore A, Cadoni R, Penninckx F. Long-term outcome of ventral rectopexy for total rectal prolapse. Br J Surg. 2004;91:1500–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lechaux D, Trebuchet G, Siproudhis L, Campion JP. Laparoscopic rectopexy for full-thickness rectal prolapse: a single-institution retrospective study evaluating surgical outcome. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:514–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Ashari LH, Lumley JW, Stevenson ARL, Stitz RW. Laparoscopically-assisted resection rectopexy for rectal prolapse: ten years’ experience. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:982–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Heemskerk J, de Hoog DE, van Gemert WG, Baeten CG, Greve JW, Bouvy ND. Robot-assisted vs. conventional laparoscopic rectopexy for rectal prolapse: a comparative study on costs and time. Dis Colon Rectum. 2007;50:1825–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Salkeld G, Bagia M, Solomon M. Economic impact of laparoscopic versus open abdominal rectopexy. Br J Surg. 2004;91:1188–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    de Hoog DE, Heemskerk J, Nieman FH, van Gemert WG, Baeten CG, Bouvy ND. Recurrence and functional results after open versus conventional laparoscopic versus robot-assisted laparoscopic rectopexy for rectal prolapse: a case–control study. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2009;24:1201–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009;59:225–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Jacobs M, Verdeja JC, Goldstein HS. Minimally invasive colon resection (laparoscopic colectomy). Surg Laparosc Endosc. 1991;1:144–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Johnstone PAS, Rohde DC, Swartz SE, Fetter JE, Wexner SD. Port site recurrences after laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures in malignancy. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14:1950–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Fleshman JW, Nelson H, Peters WR, Kim HC, Larach S, Boorse RR, et al. Early results of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. Retrospective analysis of 372 patients treated by Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Therapy (COST) Study Group. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39(10 Suppl):53–8.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Approved statement on laparoscopic colectomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1994;37:638.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Stocchi L, Nelson H. Laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer: trial update. J Surg Oncol. 1998;68:255–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lacy AM, García-Valdecasas JC, Delgado S, et al. ­Laparoscopy-assisted colectomy versus open colectomy for treatment of non-metastatic colon cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2002;359:2224–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Jayne DG, Guillou PJ, Thorpe H, Quirke P, Copeland J, Smith AM, et al. CLASICC Trial Group. Randomized trial of laparoscopic-assisted resection of colorectal carcinoma: 3-year results of the UK MRC CLASICC Trial Group. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:3061–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Colon Cancer Laparoscopic or Open Resection Study Group, Buunen M, Veldkamp R, Hop WC, Kuhry E, Jeekel J, et al. Survival after laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery for colon cancer: long-term outcome of a randomised clinical trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10:44–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Approved statement: laparoscopic colectomy for curable cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47(8):A1.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Fleshman JW, Wexner SD, Anvari M, LaTulippe J-F, et al. Laparoscopic vs. open abdominoperineal resection for cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:930–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kockerling F, Scheidbach H, Schneider C, Barlehner E, The Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery Study Group, et al. Laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection: early postoperative results of a prospective study involving 116 patients. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000;43:1503–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Feliciotti F, Guerrieri M, Paganini AM, DeSanctis A, et al. Long term results of laparoscopic vs open resections for rectal cancer for 124 unselected patients. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:1530–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Morino M, Parini U, Giraudo G, et al. Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision: a consecutive series of 100 patients. Ann Surg. 2003;237:335–42.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Leung KL, Kwok SP, Lam SC, Lee JF, Yiu RY, Ng SS, et al. Laparoscopic resection of rectosigmoid carcinoma: prospective randomised trial. Lancet. 2004;363:1187–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Fukunaga Y, Higashino M, Tanimura S, Takemura M, Fujiwara Y. Laparoscopic rectal surgery for middle and lower rectal cancer. Surg Endosc. 2010;24:145–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Biondo S, Ortiz H, Lujan J, Codina-Cazador A, Espin E, ­Garcia-Granero E, et al. Quality of mesorectum after laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer – results of an audited teaching programme in Spain. Colorectal Dis. 2010;12:24–31. Comment in: Colorectal Dis 2010;12:31–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bege T, Lelong B, Esterni B, Turrini O, Guiramand J, Francon D, et al. The learning curve for the laparoscopic approach to conservative mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: lessons drawn from a single institution’s experience. Ann Surg. 2010;251:249–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kim JG, Heo YJ, Son GM, Lee YS, Lee IK, Suh YJ, et al. Impact of laparoscopic surgery on the long-term outcomes for patients with rectal cancer. ANZ J Surg. 2009;79:817–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Laurent C, Leblanc F, Wutrich P, Scheffler M, Rullier E. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer: long-term oncologic results. Ann Surg. 2009;250:54–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ng KH, Ng DC, Cheung HY, et al. Laparoscopic resection for rectal cancers: lessons learned from 579 cases. Ann Surg. 2009;249:82–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Law WL, Poon JT, Fan JK, et al. Comparison of outcome of open and laparoscopic resection for stage II and stage III rectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:1488–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Gouvas N, Tsiaoussis J, Pechlivanides G, Tzortzinis A, Dervenis C, Avgerinos C, et al. Quality of surgery for rectal carcinoma: comparison between open and laparoscopic approaches. Am J Surg. 2009;198:702–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lujan J, Valero G, Hernandez Q, Sanchez A, Frutos MD, Parrilla P. Randomized clinical trial comparing laparoscopic and open surgery in patients with rectal cancer. Br J Surg. 2009;96:982–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Fleshman J. American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG)-Z6051. A phase III prospective randomized trial comparing laparoscopic-assisted resection versus open resection for rectal cancer.
  153. 153.
  154. 154.
    Kitano S, Inomata M, Sato A, et al. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG 0404. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2005;35:475–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    COLOR II. A randomized clinical trial comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer.
  156. 156.
    Row D, Weiser MR. An update on laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer. Cancer Control. 2010;17:16–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Simmang CL, Senatore P, Lowry A, et al. Practice parameters for detection of colorectal neoplasms. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:1123–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Winawer S, Fletcher R, Rex D, et al. Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale – update based on new evidence. Gastroenterology. 2003;124:544–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Vignati P, Welch JP, Cohen JL. Endoscopic localization of colon cancers. Surg Endosc. 1994;8:1085–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Larach SW, Patankar SK, Ferrara A, et al. Complications of laparoscopic colorectal surgery: analysis and comparison of early vs latter experience. Dis Colon Rectum. 1997;40:592–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Kim SH, Milsom JW, Church JM, et al. Perioperative tumor localization for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Surg Endosc. 1997;11:1013–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    McArthur CS, Roayaie S, Waye JD. Safety of preoperation endoscopic tattoo with India ink for identification of colonic lesions. Surg Endosc. 1999;13:397–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Nakajima K, Lee SW, Sonoda T, Milsom JW. Intraoperative carbon dioxide colonoscopy: a safe insufflation alternative for locating colonic lesions during laparoscopic surgery. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:321–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Otchy D, Hyman NH, Simmang C, et al. Practice parameters for colon cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:1269–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    The Standards Practice Task Force, ASCRS, Tjandra JJ, Kilkenny JW, Buie WD, et al. Practice parameters for the management of rectal cancer (revised). Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:411–23.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Goletti O, Celona G, Galatioto C, et al. Is laparoscopic sonography a reliable and sensitive procedure for staging of colorectal cancer? A comparative study. Surg Endosc. 1998;12:1236–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Milsom J, Jerby BL, Kessler H, et al. Prospective blinded comparison of laparoscopic ultrasonography versus contrast enhanced computerized tomography for liver assessment in patients undergoing colorectal carcinoma surgery. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000;43:44–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Kumar H, Hartley J, Heer K, et al. Efficacy of laparoscopic ultrasound scanning (USS) in detection of colorectal liver metastases during surgery. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000;43:320–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Abel ME, Rosen L, Kodner IJ, et al. Practice parameters for the treatment of rectal carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum. 1993;36:989–1006.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Platell C, Hall J. What is the role of mechanical bowel preparation in patients undergoing colorectal surgery? Dis Colon Rectum. 1998;41:875–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Brownson P, Jenkins SA, Nott D, et al. Mechanical bowel preparation before colorectal surgery: results of a prospective, randomized trial. Br J Surg. 1992;79:461–2.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Burke P, Mealy K, Gillen P, et al. Requirement for bowel preparation in colorectal surgery. Br J Surg. 1994;81:580–1.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Santos JC, Batista J, Sirimarco MT, et al. Prospective randomized trial of mechanical bowel preparation in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Br J Surg. 1994;81:1673–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Miettinen RP, Laitinen ST, Makela JT, Paakkonen ME. Bowel preparation with oral polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution vs. no preparation in elective open colorectal surgery: prospective, randomized study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000;43:669–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Zmora O, Mahajn A, Barak B, et al. Colon and rectal surgery without mechanical bowel preparation: randomized prospective trial. Ann Surg. 2003;237:363–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Franklin ME, Rosenthal D, Abrego-Medina D, et al. Prospective comparison of open vs. laparoscopic colon surgery for carcinoma. Five-year results. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39:S35–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Nelson H, Petrelli N, Carlin A, et al. Guidelines 2000 for colon and rectal cancer surgery. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93:583–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Wu WX, Sun YM, Hua YB, Shen LZ. Laparoscopic versus conventional open resection of rectal carcinoma: a clinical comparative study. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:1167–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Tsang WW, Chung CC, Li MK. Prospective evaluation of laparoscopic total mesorectal excision with colonic J-pouch reconstruction for mid and low rectal cancers. Br J Surg. 2003;90:867–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Leroy J, Jamali F, Forbes L, et al. Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer surgery: long-term outcomes. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:281–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Anthuber M, Fuerst A, Elser F, et al. Outcome of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer in 101 patients. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46:1047–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Berends FJ, Kazemier G, Bonjer HJ, Lange JF. Subcutaneous metastases after laparoscopic colectomy. Lancet. 1994;344:58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Bouvy ND, Marquet RL, Jeekel H, et al. Impact of gas(less) laparoscopy and laparotomy on peritoneal tumor growth and abdominal wall metastases. Ann Surg. 1996;224:694–700.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Watson DI, Mathew G, Ellis T, et al. Gasless laparoscopy may reduce the risk of port-site metastases following laparoscopic tumor surgery. Arch Surg. 1997;132:166–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Gutt CN, Riemer V, Kim ZG, et al. Impact of laparoscopic colonic resection on tumour growth and spread in an experimental model. Br J Surg. 1999;86:1180–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Iwanaka T, Arya G, Ziegler MM. Mechanism and prevention of port-site tumor recurrence after laparoscopy in a murine model. J Pediatr Surg. 1998;33:457–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Wittich P, Steyerberg EW, Simons SH, et al. Intraperitoneal tumor growth is influenced by pressure of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum. Surg Endosc. 2000;14:817–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Jacobi CA, Sterzel A, Braumann C, et al. The impact of conventional and laparoscopic colon resection (CO2 or helium) on intraperitoneal adhesion formation in a rat peritonitis model. Surg Endosc. 2001;15:380–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Neuhaus SJ, Ellis T, Rofe AM, et al. Tumor implantation following laparoscopy using different insufflation gases. Surg Endosc. 1998;12:1300–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Jacobi CA, Sterzel A, Braumann C, et al. Influence of different gases and intraperitoneal instillation of antiadherent or cytotoxic agents on peritoneal tumor cell growth and implantation with laparoscopic surgery in a rat model. Surg Endosc. 1999;13:1021–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Bouvy ND, Giuffrida MC, Tseng LN, et al. Effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum, air pneumoperitoneum, and gasless laparoscopy on body weight and tumor growth. Arch Surg. 1998;133:652–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Wu JS, Guo LW, Ruiz MB, et al. Excision of trocar sites reduces tumor implantation in an animal model. Dis Colon Rectum. 1998;41:1107–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Watson DI, Ellis T, Leeder PC, et al. Excision of laparoscopic port sites increases the likelihood of wound metastases in an experimental model. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:83–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Wittich P, Marquet RL, Kazemier G, et al. Port-site metastases after CO(2) laparoscopy: is aerosolization of tumor cells a pivotal factor? Surg Endosc. 2000;14:189–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Whelan RL, Sellers GJ, Allendorf JD, et al. Trocar site recurrence is unlikely to result from aerosolization of tumor cells. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39:S7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Veldkamp R, Gholghesaei M, HJ B, et al. Laparoscopic resection of colon cancer. Consensus of the European Association of Endoscopic Surgery. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:1163–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Tseng LN, Berends FJ, Wittich P, et al. Port-site metastases: impact of local tissue trauma and gas leakage. Surg Endosc. 1998;12:1377–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Neuhaus SJ, Watson DI, Ellis T, et al. Influence of cytotoxic agents on intraperitoneal tumor implantation after laparoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:10–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Lee SW, Gleason NR, Bessler M, et al. Peritoneal irrigation with povidone-iodine solution after laparoscopic-assisted splenectomy significantly decreases port-tumor recurrence in a murine model. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:319–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Neuhaus SJ, Ellis T, Jamieson GG, et al. Experimental study of the effect of intraperitoneal heparin on tumour implantation following laparoscopy. Br J Surg. 1999;86:400–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Braumann C, Ordemann J, Wildbrett P, et al. Influence of intraperitoneal and systemic application of taurolidine and taurolidine/heparin during laparoscopy on intraperitoneal and subcutaneous tumour growth in rats. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2001;8:547–52.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Jacobi CA, Peter FJ, Wenger FA, et al. New therapeutic strategies to avoid intra- and extraperitoneal metastases during laparoscopy: results of a tumor model in the rat. Dig Surg. 1999;16:393–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Eshraghi N, Swanstrom LL, Bax T, et al. Topical treatments of laparoscopic port sites can decrease the incidence of incision metastasis. Surg Endosc. 1999;13:1121–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Reilly WT, Nelson H, Schroeder G, et al. Wound recurrence following conventional treatment of colorectal cancer: a rare but perhaps underestimated problem. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39:200–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Young-Fadok TM, Fanelli RD, Price RR, Earle DB. Laparoscopic resection of curable colon and rectal cancer: an ­evidence-based review. Surg Endosc. 2007;21:1063–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Ou H. Laparoscopic-assisted mini laparotomy with colectomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1995;38:324–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Mooney MJ, Elliott PL, Galapon DB, et al. Hand-assisted laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 1998;41:630–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Southern Surgeons’ Club Study Group. Handoscopic surgery: a prospective multicenter trial of minimally invasive technique for complex abdominal surgery. Arch Surg. 1999;134:477–86.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    HALS Study Group. Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery vs standard laparoscopic surgery for colorectal disease: a prospective randomized trial. Surg Endosc. 2000;14:896–901.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Litwin D, Darzi A, Jakimowicz J, et al. Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) with the HandPort system: initial experience with 68 patients. Ann Surg. 2000;231:715–23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Targarona EM, Gracia E, Garriga J, et al. Prospective randomized trial comparing conventional laparoscopic colectomy with hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy. Surg Endosc. 2002;16:234–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Cobb WS, Lokey JS, Schwab DP, et al. Hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy: a single-institution experience. Am Surg. 2003;69:578–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Kang JC, Chung MH, Yeh CC, et al. Hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy vs open colectomy: a prospective randomized study. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:577–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Maartense S, Dunker MS, Slors JF, et al. Hand-assisted laparoscopic versus open proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis: a randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2004;240:984–92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Boushey RP, Marcello PW, Martel G, Rusin LC, Roberts PL, Schoetz Jr DJ. Laparoscopic total colectomy: an evolutionary experience. Dis Colon Rectum. 2007;50:1512–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Cadeddu JA, Gautam G, Shalhav AL. Robotic prostatectomy. J Urol. 2010;183:858–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Rawlings AL, Woodland JH, Vegunta RK, Crawford DL. Robotic versus laparoscopic colectomy. Surg Endosc. 2007;21:1701–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Baik SH, Kwon HY, Kim JS, Hur H, Sohn SK, Cho CH, et al. Robotic versus laparoscopic low anterior resection of rectal cancer: short-term outcome of a prospective comparative study. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:1480–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Choi DJ, Kim SH, Lee PJ, Kim J, Woo SU. Single-stage totally robotic dissection for rectal cancer surgery: technique and short-term outcome in 50 consecutive patients. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009;52:1824–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Patriti A, Ceccarelli G, Bartoli A, Spaziani A, Biancafarina A, Casciola L. Short- and medium-term outcome of robot-assisted and traditional laparoscopic rectal resection. JSLS. 2009;13:176–83.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Merchant AM, Lin E. Single-incision laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for a colon mass. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009;52:1021–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
  223. 223.
    Law WL, Fan JK, Poon JT. Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy: early experience. Dis Colon Rectum. 2010;53:284–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Ostrowitz MB, Eschete D, Zemon H, DeNoto G. Robotic-assisted single-incision right colectomy: early experience. Int J Med Robot. 2009;5(4):465–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Piskun G, Rajpal S. Transumbilical laparoscopic cholecystectomy utilizes no incisions outside the umbilicus. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 1999;9:361–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Palanivelu C, Rajan P, Rangarajan M, Parthasarathi R, Senthilnathan P, Prasad M. Transvaginal endoscopic appendectomy in humans: a unique approach to NOTES-world’s first report. Surg Endosc. 2008;22:1343–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Denk PM, Swanstrom LL, Whiteford MH. Transanal endoscopic microsurgical platform for natural orifice surgery. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;68(5):954–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Whiteford MH, Spaun GO. A colorectal surgeons viewpoint on natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery. Minerva Chir. 2008;63(5):385–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Leroy J, Cahill RA, Perretta S, Forgione A, Dallemagne B, Marescaux J. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) applied totally to sigmoidectomy: an original technique with survival in a porcine model. Surg Endosc. 2009;23:24–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Ramamoorthy SL, Fischer LJ, Jacobsen G, Thompson K, Wong B, Spivack A, et al. Transrectal endoscopic retrorectal access (TERA): a novel NOTES approach to the peritoneal cavity. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2009;19:603–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Bemelman WA. Laparoscopic ileoanal pouch surgery. Br J Surg. 2010;97(1):2–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASCRS (American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tonia Young-Fadok
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Colon and Rectal SurgeryMayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic ScottsdalePhoenixUSA

Personalised recommendations