• Marc Singer


Hemorrhoids are a normal component of anorectal anatomy. The terms “hemorrhoids” – as used by patients – or “hemorrhoidal disease” refer to the state of symptoms attributed to the vascular cushions present in the anal canal. It is critical for both surgeons and patients alike to consider this fact when evaluating and managing hemorrhoidal symptoms, as patients may desire removal of hemorrhoids, whereas control of symptoms should be the primary treatment goal.



This chapter was written by Jose R. Citron and Herand Abcarian in the first edition of this textbook.


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Copyright information

© ASCRS (American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc Singer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Section of Colon and Rectal SurgeryNorthShore University Health SystemEvanstonUSA

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