Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch): Population and Conservation

Chapter
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)

Abstract

Java marks the most southwesterly limits for the range of the Asian primates. There is fossil evidence that the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) (Storm et al. 2005), siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) (Hooijer 1960), and the pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) (Aimi 1981) once lived in Java. Those local extinctions are quite ancient, but other extinctions, such as the Javan tiger (Panthera tigris javanicus), date back only a few decades, reflecting the severity of environmental degradation in the island (Siedensticker 1987). There are five primates living in Java today, of which two, the Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch) and the grizzled leaf monkey (Presbytis comata), are now categorized on the IUCN Red List as endangered (IUCN 1996). The remaining species, the Javan leaf monkey (Trachypthecus auratus) and Javan slow loris (Nycticebus coucang javanicus) are ranked as vulnerable, while the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is still relatively abundant (Supriatna and Wahyono 2000; Supriatna et al. 2001).

Keywords

Income Charcoal Indonesia Malone Loris 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank our colleagues who helped us in gathering data and publications, and assisted us during fieldwork and literature studies on the Javan gibbon. We are most grateful to our colleagues at the Department of Biology, University of Indonesia for their support, especially the students who have been working with us in the study of the Javan gibbon. We also thank Dr. Didi Indrawan, Guritno Djanubudiman, R. M. Hidayat of Indonesia Biodiversity and Development Foundation (BIODEV), Anton Ario, Hendi Sumantri, Dr. Barita Manullang, William Marthy, Ermayanti, Iwan Wijayanto, and the entire staff at Conservation International Indonesia. Many thanks to our friends and supporters at the Javan Gibbon Foundation and the International Gibbon Foundation.

References

  1. Aimi M (1981) Fossil Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus, 1766) from Java, Indonesia. Primates 22(3):409–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alrasyid MH (2003) Populasi owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch Audebert, 1798) di Resort Wilayah Konservasi Mandala, Cagar Alam Gunung Tilu, Jawa Barat. BSc thesis, Bogor Agriculture University, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  3. Andayani N, Morales JC, Forstner MRJ, Supriatna J, Melnick DJ (2001) Genetic variability in mtDNA of the silvery gibbon: implications for the conservation of a critically endangered species. Conserv Biol 15(3):770–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asquith NM (1995) Javan gibbon conservation: why habitat protection is crucial. Trop Biodivers 3(1):63–65Google Scholar
  5. Asquith NM (2001) Misdirections in conservation biology. Conserv Biol 15(2):345–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asquith NM, Martarinza M, Sinaga RM (1995) The Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch): status and conservation recommendations. Trop Biodivers 3(1):1–14Google Scholar
  7. Atmoko SU, Wedana M, Oktavinalis H, Bukhorie E (2008) Preliminary report: survey update population and distribution estimates of the Javan gibbon. Gibbon’s Voice 10(1):3–7Google Scholar
  8. Avise JC (1994) Molecular markers, natural history and evolution. Chapman and Hall, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biro Pusat Statistik (2006) BPS Statistics Indonesia: population profile. http://jateng.bps.go.id/2006/index06_eng.html, Yogyakarta: http://yogyakarta.bps.go.id/component/content/article/64-daftarpublikasi/147-daerah-istimewa-yogyakarta-dalam-angka-20062007-, Jawa Timur : http://jatim.bps.go.id/index.php?s=data+2006, Banten: http://www.bantenprov.go.id/home.php?link=dtl–id=1731, Jawa Barat : http://jabar.bps.go.id/web2006/index.html; DKI Jakarta: http://jakarta.bps.go.id/JDA/JDA2006/JDA2006.pdf, April 20, 2006, 10:15 am
  10. Campbell C, Andayani N, Cheyne S, Pamungkas J, Usman F, Taylor-Holtzer K (2008) Indonesia Gibbon conservation and management workshop: final report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MNGoogle Scholar
  11. Conservation International Indonesia (2005) Annual report. Conservation International, Jakarta, 35 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Djanubudiman G, Arisona J, Iqbal M, Wibisono F, Mulcahy G, Indrawan M, Hidayat RM (2004) Current distribution and conservation priorities for the Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch). Report to Great Ape Conservation Fund, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, Indonesian Foundation for Advance of Biological Sciences and Center for Biodiversity and Conservation Studies of University of Indonesia, Depok, 25 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. FAO (1990) Situation and outlook of forestry sectors in Indonesia. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), JakartaGoogle Scholar
  14. Geissmann T, Dallmann R, Pastorini J (2002) The Javan silvery gibbon (Hylobatesmoloch): are there several subspecies? In: Abstracts: XIXth congress of the international primatological society, 4–9 August 2002, Beijing, China. Mammalogical Society of China, Beijing (Abstract), pp 120–121Google Scholar
  15. Groves CP (2005) Order Primates. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM (eds) Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, vol 1. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 111–184Google Scholar
  16. Gurmaya KJ (1992) Ecology and conservation of five species of Java’s primates in Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, Indonesia. Research report, Padjadjaran University, BandungGoogle Scholar
  17. Hooijer DA (1960) Quaternary gibbons from the Malay Archipelago. Zool Verhand Leiden 46:1–41Google Scholar
  18. Iskandar E (2007) Habitat dan populasi owa jawa (Hylobates moloch Audebert, 1797) - di Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun-Salak Jawa Barat. Thesis Doktor, Universtas Indonesia, Bogor, p 141Google Scholar
  19. IUCN (1996) 1996 IUCN red list of threatened animals. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  20. Kappeler M (1984) The gibbon in Java. In: Preuschoft H, Chivers DJ, Brockelman W, Creel N (eds) The lesser apes: evolutionary and behavioral biology. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp 19–31Google Scholar
  21. Kierulff MCM, Procópio de Oliveira P, Beck BB, Martins A (2002) Reintroduction and translocation as conservation tools for golden lion tamarins. In: Kleiman DG, Rylands AB (eds) Lion tamarins: biology and conservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp 271–282Google Scholar
  22. Lande R (1988) Genetics and demography in biological conservation. Science 241:1455–1460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Malone NM, Fuentes A, Purnama AR, Adi Putra IMW (2004) Displaced hylobatids: biological, cultural, and economic aspects of the primate trade in Java and Bali. Indones Trop Biodivers 8(1):41–49Google Scholar
  24. Ministry of Forestry and World Bank (2000) National forest inventory mapping. JakartaGoogle Scholar
  25. Mootnick AR (2006) Gibbon (Hylobatidae) species identification recommended for rescue or breeding centers. Primate Conserv 21:103–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mootnick AR, Groves C (2005) A new generic name for the hoolock gibbon (Hylobatidae). Int J Primatol 26(4):971–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nijman V (2004) Conservation of the Javan gibbon Hylobates moloch: population estimates, local extinctions, and conservation priorities. Raffles Bull Zool 52(1):271–280Google Scholar
  28. Nijman V, Sözer R (1995) Recent observations of the grizzled leaf monkey (Presbytis comata) and extension of the range of the Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch) in central Java. Trop Biodivers 3(1):45–48Google Scholar
  29. Nijman V, van Balen B (1998) A faunal survey of the Dieng mountains, Central Java, Indonesia: status and distribution of endemic primate taxa. Oryx 32:145–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Purwanto Y (1996) Studi habitat owa abu-abu (Hylobates moloch Audebert, 1798) di Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango Jawa Barat. BSc thesis, Jurusan Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam, Bogor Agriculture University, BogorGoogle Scholar
  31. Raharjo B (2003). Studi populasi dan analisis vegetasi habitat owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch Audebert, 1797) di Bedogol, Taman Nasional Gunung Gede-Pangrango, Jawa Barat. BSc thesis, Dept. Of Biology, University of Indonesia, DepokGoogle Scholar
  32. RePPProt (1990) Land resources of Indonesia: a national overview. Overseas Development Administration (UK) and Dept. Of Transmigration, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  33. Rinaldi D (2003) The study of Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch Audebert) in Gunung Halimun National Park (distribution, population and behavior). In: Sakagushi N, ed. Research and conservation of biodiversity in Indonesia, vol XI: Research on endangered species in Gunung Halimun National Park. Bogor: JIKA Biodiversity Conservation pp 30–48Google Scholar
  34. Roos C, Thanh Vu Ngoc, Walter L, Nadler T (2007) Molecular systematics of Indochinese primates. Vietnam J Primatol 1(1):41–53Google Scholar
  35. Siedensticker J (1987) Bearing witness: observations on the extinction of Panthera tigris balica and Panthera tigris sondaica. In: Tilson RL, Seal US (eds) Tigers of the world: the biology, biopolitics, management, and conservation of an endangered species. Noyes, New Jersey, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  36. Sjahfirdi L, Ramelan W, Yusuf TL, Supriatna J, Maheswari H, Astuti P, Sayuti D, Kyes R (2006a). Reproductive monitoring of captive-housed female Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch Audebert, 1797) by serum hormone analyses. Proc. intl. assoc. Asia and Oceanic Society for comparative endocrinology, Bangkok, pp 365–370Google Scholar
  37. Sjahfirdi L, Ramelan W, Yusuf TL, Supriatna J, Maheswari H, Astuti P, Sayuti D, & Kyes R. (2006b). Hormonal vaginal cytology of captive-housed female Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch Audebert, 1797) by serum hormone analyses. Proc. intl. proc. intl. assoc. Asia and Oceanic Society for comparative endocrinology, Bangkok, pp 371–376Google Scholar
  38. Sody HJV (1949) Notes on some primates, carnivora, and the babirusa from the Indo-Malayan and Indo-Australian regions. Treubia 20:121–126Google Scholar
  39. Storm P, Aziz F, de Vos J, Kosasih D, Baskoro S, Ngallman, van den Hoek Ostende LW (2005) Late Pleistocene homo sapiens in a tropical rainforest fauna in East Java. J Hum Evol 49(4):536–545Google Scholar
  40. Subekti I (2003) Populasi Owa jawa (Hylobates moloch Audebert, 1798) di Cagar Alam Gunung Simpang, Jawa Barat. Dept. of Biology, Padjadjaran University, BandungGoogle Scholar
  41. Sugardjito J, Sinaga MH (1999). Conservation status and population distribution of primates in Gunung Halimun National Park, West Java - Indonesia. In: Supriatna J, Manullang BO (eds) Proceedings of the international workshop on Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch): rescue and rehabilitation. Conservation International Indonesia and University of Indonesia, Jakarta, pp 6–12Google Scholar
  42. Sugardjito J, Sinaga MH, Yoneda M (1997) Survey of the distribution and density of primates in Gunung Halimun National Park, West Java, Indonesia. In: Research and conservation of biodiversity in Indonesia, vol 2. The Inventory of Natural Resources in Gunung Halimun National Park, Bogor, pp 56–62Google Scholar
  43. Supriatna J (2001) Primate conservation in the fragmented forest: case study in Indonesia. In: Supriatna J, Manansang J, Tumbelaka L, Andayani N, Seal U, Byers O (eds) Conservation assessment and management plan for the primates of Indonesia. Briefing book. Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (IUCN/SSC), Apple Valley, MN, p 516Google Scholar
  44. Supriatna J, Hendras E (2000) Panduan lapangan primata Indonesia. Yayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta, p 332Google Scholar
  45. Supriatna J, Manullang BO (1999) Proceedings of the international workshop on Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch): rescue and rehabilitation. Conservation International Indonesia and University of Indonesia, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  46. Supriatna J, Martarinza, Sudirman (1992) Sebaran kepadatan, dan habitat populasi lutung dan owa. Dept. Biologi, Universitas Indonesia, DepokGoogle Scholar
  47. Supriatna J, Wahyono EH (2000) Panduan lapangan primata Indonesia. Yayasan Obor Indonesia, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  48. Supriatna J, Tilson RL, Gurmaya KJ, Manansang J, Wardojo W, Sriyanto A, Teare A, Castle K, Seal US (eds) (1994) Javan Gibbon and Javan Langur: population and habitat viability analysis report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  49. Supriatna J, Andayani N, Suryadi S, Leksono SM, Sutarman D, Buchori D (1998) Penerapan Genetika Molekular dalam upaya konservasi satwa langka: Studi kasus metapopulasi owa jawa (Hylobates moloch). Kantor Menteri Negara Riset dan Teknologi, Dewan Riset Nasional, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  50. Supriatna J, Andayani N, Forstner M, Melnick DJ (1999) A molecular approach to the conservation of the Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch). In: Supriatna J, Manullang BO (eds) Proceedings of the international workshop on Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch): rescue and rehabilitation. Conservation International Indonesia and University of Indonesia, Jakarta, pp 25–31Google Scholar
  51. Supriatna J, Manansang J, Tumbelaka L, Andayani N, Seal US, Byers O (2001) Conservation assessment and management plan for the primates of Indonesia. Briefing book. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley, MNGoogle Scholar
  52. Suryanti T (2006) Ekologi Lansekap dalam manajemen dan konservasi habitat owa jawa (Hylobates moloch Audebert 1797) di Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Jawa Barat. Thesis Doktor, Universtas IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  53. Takacs Z, Morales JC, Geissmann T, Melnick DJ (2005) A complete species-level phylogeny of the Hylobatidae based on mitochondrial ND3-ND4 gene sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 36:456–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Thompson H, Cocks L (2008) International silvery gibbon studbook (Hylobates moloch)Google Scholar
  55. Whitten T, Soeriaatmadja RE, Affif SA (1996) Ecology Java and Bali. Periplus Editions, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  56. Wibisono HT (1995) Survei Populasi dan Ekologi Primata di Gunung Honje Taman Nasional Ujung Kulon. Yayasan Bina Sains Hayati Indonesia, JakartaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Conservation International IndonesiaJakartaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations