Advertisement

Male–Male Affiliation in Sulawesi Tonkean Macaques

Chapter
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)

Abstract

Research during the early years of field primatology was primarily centered on the more conspicuous individuals (i.e., males) and behaviors (i.e., aggression), and in particular, males engaged in aggression (Bygott 1974; Hausfater 1975; Popp and DeVore 1979). Since that time, subsequent field research has increasingly revealed the importance of affiliation within primate social groups (Strum 1982, 2001; Smuts 1985; Strier 1994; Gould 1994; Silk 2002), leading some to argue for a renewed attention to the potential role it played in the evolution of primate sociality (Sussman et al. 2005). The primary focus of most of this work has been on the importance of affiliative and cooperative relationships between females and between males and females. Male-male relationships, however, remained largely viewed through the lenses of aggression and dominance (Hill and van Hooff 1994). This is because primate socioecological theory predicts that males and females compete for different resources (i.e., access to mates and food, respectively), and affiliative and cooperative behavior is expected to be high among females and low among males (Trivers 1972; Wrangham 1980). There is, however, increasing evidence that the nature of male-male relationships may be more diverse than previously thought (van Hooff and van Schaik 1994). For example, in 1994, an entire volume of the journal Behaviour was devoted to the topic of male-male bonding. Six years later, an edited volume titled Primate Males (Kappeler 2000) provided further evidence of the complexity of primate males, particularly with regard to male-male interactions and the role males play in shaping social organization. A number of these papers explore the key variables, both proximate and ultimate, that explain the occurrence of affiliation among males. Male philopatry and kinship have been identified as two of the most important variables (van Hooff and van Schaik 1994). The common chimpanzee represents a good example of male bonding in a male philopatric species; male chimps have been observed to form strong male-male alliances and engage in high levels of mutual grooming (Nishida and Hiraiwa-Hasegawa 1987). At the same time, although less common, male bonding has been observed in species in which males disperse, thereby suggesting that kinship need not be a prerequisite for male-male affiliation (Silk 1994; Hill and van Hooff 1994).

Keywords

Affiliative Behavior Macaque Species Social Tolerance Tonkean Macaque Assamese Macaque 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

I thank the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) and the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry (PHKA) for permission to conduct the research, and Noviar Andayani and Amir Hamzah for their sponsorship. Financial support was provided by the National Science Foundation, Wenner Gren Foundation, Wildlife Conservation Society, and American Society of Primatologists. I offer many thanks to Matt Cooper, Chia Tan, and the editors of this volume whose comments on earlier drafts greatly improved this manuscript. I also thank Li An for his statistical guidance, and my students, Laura Graves and Jeff Peterson, for their help with the data analyses. I am forever grateful to the following individuals whose assistance in the field made this work possible: Manto, James, Papa Denis, Pak Asdi, Pias, Tinus, and Papa Tri.

References

  1. Altmann J (1974) Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behavior 49:227-267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asquith PJ (1989) Provisioning and the study of free-ranging primates: history, effects, and prospects. Yearb Phys Anthropol 32:129-158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berman CM, Ionica C, Dorner M, Li J (2006) Postconfllict affiliation between former opponents in Macaca thibetana on Mt. Huangshan, China. Int J Primatol 27:827-854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berman CM, Ionica C, Li J (2007) Supportive and tolerant relationships among male Tibetan macaques at Huangshan, China. Behaviour 144:631-661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernstein IS, Baker SC (1988) Activity patterns in a captive group of Celebes Black Apes (Macaca nigra). Folia Primatol 51:61-75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bygott JD (1974) Agonistic behavior and dominance in wild Chimpanzees. Cambridge University, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. Bynum EL (1999) Biogeography and evolution of Sulawesi macaques. Trop Biodiversity 6(1-2):19-36Google Scholar
  8. Caldecott JO (1986) Mating patterns, societies, and ecogeography of macaques. Anim Behav 34:208-220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cooper MA, Aureli F, Singh M (2004) Between-group encounters among bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 56:217-227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cooper MA, Bernstein IS (2000) Social grooming in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). Am J Primatol 50:77-85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cooper MA, Bernstein IS (2008) Evaluating dominance style in Assamese and rhesus macaques. Int J Primatol 29:225-243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fa JE (1991) Provisioning of Barbary Macaques on the rock of Gibraltar. In: Box HO (ed) Primate responses to environmental change. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Fooden J (1969) Taxonomy and evolution of the Monkeys of Celebes. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  14. Gould L (1994) Patterns of affiliative behavior in adult male ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Beza-Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. Ph.D. thesis. St Louis, Washington UniversityGoogle Scholar
  15. Groves C (2001) Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  16. Hausfater G (1975) Dominance and reproduction in Baboons. Contributions to Primatology. vol 7. Basel: KargerGoogle Scholar
  17. Hill DA (1994) Affiliative behavior between adult males of the genus Macaca. Behaviour 130(3-4):293-308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hill DA, van Hooff JARAM (1994) Affiliative relationships between males in groups of nonhuman primate: a summary. Behaviour 130(3-4):143-149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hillyar J (2001) Time budgeting of the Buton macaque. Macaca ochreata brunnescens, Operation WallaceaGoogle Scholar
  20. Kappeler PM (2000) Primate males. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  21. Kohlhaas A, Southwick CH (1996) Macaca nigrescens: grouping patterns and group composition on a Sulawesi Macaque. In: Fa JE, Lindburg DG (eds) Evolution and ecology of Macaque societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 132-145Google Scholar
  22. Kurup GU (1988) The grooming pattern in bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Ann N Y Acad Sci 525:414-416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Matsumura S (1998) Relaxed dominance relations among female Moor Macaques (Macaca maurus) in their natural habitat, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Folia Primatol 69(2):346-356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nishida T, Hiraiwa-Hasegawa M (1987) Chimpanzees and bonobos: cooperative relationships among males. In: Smuts BB, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Wrangham RW, Struhsaker TT (eds) Primate societies. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  25. O’Brien TG, Kinnaird MF (1997) Behavior, diet, and movements of the Sulawesi crested black macaque. Int J Primatol 18(3):321-351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ogawa H (1995) Bridging behavior and other affiliative interactions among male Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana). Int J Primatol 16(5):707-729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Okamoto K, Matsumura S (2001) Group fission in moor macaques (Macaca maurus). Int J Primatol 22(3):481-493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Okamoto K, Matsumura S, Watanabe K (2000) Life history and demography of wild Moor Macaques (Macaca maurus): summary of ten years of observations. Am J Primatol 52:1-11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. O’Leary H, Fa JE (1993) Effects of tourists on Barbary Macaques at Gibraltar. Folia Primatol 61:77-91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pombo AR, Waltert M, Mansjoer SS, Mardiasuti A, Muhlenberg M (2004) Home range, diet and behavior of the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana) in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi. In: Gerold G, Fremerey M, Guhardja E (eds) Land use, nature conservation the stability of Rainforest margins in Southeast Asia. Springer, Berlin, pp 313-325Google Scholar
  31. Popp J, DeVore I (1979) Aggressive competition and social dominance theory. In: Hamburg D, McCown ER (eds) The great apes: perspectives on human evolution, vol 5. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, pp 317-340Google Scholar
  32. Preuschoft S, Paul A (2000) Dominance, egalitarianism, and stalemate: an experimental approach to male-male competition in Barbary macaques. In: Kappeler PM (ed) Primate males. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 205-217Google Scholar
  33. Reed C, O’Brien TG, Kinnaird MF (1997) Male social behavior and dominance in the Sulawesi crested black macaque (Macaca nigra). Int J Primatol 18(2):247-260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Riley EP (2005a) Ethnoprimatology of Macaca tonkeana: the interface of primate ecology, human ecology, and conservation in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Riley EP (2005b) The loud call of the Sulawesi Tonkean macaque, Macaca tonkeana. Trop Biodiversity 8(3):199-209Google Scholar
  36. Riley EP (2007) Flexibility in diet and activity patterns of Macaca tonkeana in response to anthropogenic habitat alteration. Int J Primatol 28(1):107-133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Riley EP (2008) Ranging patterns and habitat use of Sulawesi Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) in a human-modified habitat. Am J Primatol 70(7):670-679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Silk JB (1994) Social relationships of male bonnet macaques: male bonding in a matrilineal society. Behaviour 130(3-4):271-291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Silk JB (2002) Introduction. What are friends for? The adaptive value of social bonds in primate groups. Behaviour 139:173-176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Smuts BB (1985) Sex and friendship in Baboons. Aldine de Gruyter, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1981) Biometry, 2nd edn. W.H. Freeman & Co., San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  42. Strier KB (1994) Brotherhoods among atelins: Kinship, affiliation, and competition. Behaviour 130(3-4):151-167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Strum SC (1982) Agonistic dominance in male baboons: an alternative view. Int J Primatol 3:175-202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Strum SC (2001) Almost Human. University of Chicago, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  45. Sussman RW, Garber PA, Cheverud JM (2005) The importance of cooperation and affiliation in the evolution of primate sociality. Am J Phys Anthropol 128:84-97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thierry B (1984) Clasping behavior in Macaca tonkeana. Behaviour 89:1-28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thierry B (1985) Patterns of agonistic Interactions in three species of macaque (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. tonkeana). Aggress Behav 11:223-233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thierry B, Anderson JR, Demaria C, Desportes C, Petit O (1994) Tonkean Macaque behavior from the perspective of the evolution of Sulawesi Macaques. In: Roeder JJ, Thierry B, Anderson JR, Herrenschmidt N (eds) Current primatology. Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, pp 103-117Google Scholar
  49. Thierry B, Gauthier C, Peignot P (1990) Social grooming in Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana). Int J Primatol 11(4):357-375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Trivers R (1972) Parental investment and sexual selection. In: Campbell BG (ed) Sexual selection and the descent of man, 1871-1971. Aldine de Gruyter, Chicago, pp 136-179Google Scholar
  51. van Hooff JARAM, van Schaik CP (1994) Male bonds: affiliative relationships among nonhuman primate males. Behaviour 130(3-4):309-337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Watanabe K, Brotoisworo E (1982) Field observation of Sulawesi macaques. Kyoto University Overseas Research Report on Asian Nonhuman Primates 2:3-9Google Scholar
  53. Wheatley BP, Harya Putra DK (1994) Biting the hand that feeds you: Monkeys and tourists in the Balinese monkey forests. Trop Biodiversity 2(2):317-327Google Scholar
  54. Wrangham RW (1980) An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour 75:262-299CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologySan Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations