Confounding and Bias

  • Jørn Olsen
  • Kaare Christensen
  • Jeff Murray
  • Anders Ekbom
Part of the Springer Series on Epidemiology and Public Health book series (SSEH, volume 1)


In Part II we described how to estimate a measure of association between an exposure and an end point, often a disease. We are interested in “effects” but are only able to measure associations, and we have several procedures to go through before associations can be called “effects.” Measures of association emerge for all possible reasons and only some of these relate to “effects.” Effect is a causal word to be used with care.


Smoke Measle 


  1. 1.
    Last JM (ed.). A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3rd Edition. Oxford University Press, New York, 1995.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jørn Olsen
    • 1
  • Kaare Christensen
    • 2
  • Jeff Murray
    • 3
  • Anders Ekbom
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Public HealthUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Public HealthUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdense CDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Pediatrics, 2182 MedLabsUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden

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