Nanotechnologies for Li Batteries
Batteries store chemical energy, which is converted into electric energy by electrochemical reactions. Those that cannot be used once the electric energy is totally discharged are called primary cell. Batteries that can induce chemical reaction by charging electric energy to reactivate the electrode material and be used many times are called secondary batteries.
Due to the rapid growth of electrical and mechanical integration technologies such as wireless telecommunications, emerging integrated optoelectronic circuits, and rapidly growing microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), secondary batteries that are mounted on semiconductor tips are attracting attention throughout the world. In Table 2.1, conventional batteries have been classified according to their application. The expected power of the microbatteries is between 102 and 103μW cm−2 in the temperature range −20 to 80°C, and a capacity of up to 103μAhcm−2 with a required operating voltage range of 2–3 V . The number of cycles depends on applications: primary cell may be sufficient for smart cards whereas applications in aerospace require more than 104 cycles. The battery proximity to microelectronic components is required to prevent any liquid leakage. The thickness of the battery should not exceed 0.3–3 mm including packaging. The battery surface area depends on the power requirement and may vary from 10−2 to 20 cm2 .
KeywordsNickel Lithium Argon Hydroxide Cadmium
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