Advertisement

Anxiety Disorders

  • Rose C. Smith
  • Lisa S. Elwood
  • Matthew T. Feldner
  • Bunmi O. OlatunjiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychological disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 31.2% and a 12-month prevalence of 19.1% in the United States (Kessler et al., 2005; Kessler, Chiu, Demler, Merikangas, & Walters, 2005). Individuals with an anxiety disorder present with a variety of physical and psychological symptoms. Particularly unique to anxiety are the symptoms of physical tension and apprehension about the future (Barlow, 2002). Anxiety disorders typically begin in childhood or early adolescence (Inderbitzen & Hope, 1995; Liebowitz, Gorman, Fyer, & Klein, 1985; Macaulay & Kleinknecht, 1989; Rasmussen & Eisen, 1990; Warren & Zgourides, 1988) and may follow a chronic course into adulthood (Albano, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998).

Keywords

Anxiety Disorder Social Anxiety Generalize Anxiety Disorder Social Phobia Panic Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Albano, A. M., Chorpita, B. F., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). Childhood anxiety disorders. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology (pp. 196–241). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  2. Alegria, M., Mulvaney-Day, N., Torres, M., Polo, A., Cao, Z., & Canino, G. (2007). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders across Latino subgroups in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 68–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alwahhabi, F. (2003). Anxiety symptoms and generalized anxiety disorder in the elderly: A review. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 11, 180–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. - Text Revision). Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57, 1060–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antony, M. M., Orsillo, S. M., & Roemer, L. (2001). Practitioner’s guide to empirically based measures of anxiety. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, S., Patterson, M., & Barlow, D. (2002). Panic disorder and agoraphobia. Handbook of assessment and treatment planning for psychological disorders (pp. 67–112). New York, NY US: Guilford.Google Scholar
  8. Barkley, R. A. (2006). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In D. A. Wolfe & E. J. Mash (Eds.), Behavioral and emotional disorders in adolescents: Nature, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  9. Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  10. Barlow, D., & Craske, M. (1988). The phenomenology of panic. Panic: Psychological perspectives (pp. 11–35), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  11. Barlow, D. H., & Craske, M. G. (2000). Mastery of your anxiety and panic (MAP-3): Client work-book for anxiety and panic (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Graywind/Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  12. Barlow, D. H., & Mavissakalian (Eds.). (1981). Phobia: psychological and pharmacological treatment. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  13. Barlow, D., Brown, T., & Craske, M. (1994, August). Definitions of panic attacks and panic disorder in the DSM-IV: Implications for research. Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 103(3), 553–564.Google Scholar
  14. Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 893–897.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Beekman, A. T. F., Bremmer, M. A., Deeg, D. J. H., Van Balkom, A. J. L. M., Smit, J. H., De Beurs, E., et al. (1998). Anxiety disorders in later life: A report from the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 717–726.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Beesdo, K., Bittner, A., Pine, D. S., Stein, M. B., Hofler, M., Lieb, R., et al. (2007). Incidence of social anxiety disorder and the consistent risk for secondary depression in the first three decades of life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 903–912.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bernstein, G. A., Borchardt, C. M., & Perwien, A. R. (1996). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: A review of the past ten years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1110–1119.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Borkovek, T. D., Hazlett-Stevens, H., & Diaz, M. L. (1999). The role of positive beliefs about worry in generalized anxiety disorder and its treatment. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 6, 126–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Breslau, J., Kendler, K. S., Maxwell, S., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., & Kessler, R. C. (2005). Lifetime risk and prevalence of psychiatric disorders across ethnic groups in the United States. Psychological Medicine, 35, 317–327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown, T. A. (1996). Validity of the DSM-III-R and DSM-IV classification systems for anxiety disorders. In R. N. Rapee (Ed.), Current controversies in the anxiety disorders. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  21. Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (2002). Classification of anxiety and mood disorders. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  22. Brown, T., Chorpita, B., & Barlow, D. (1998). Structural relationships among dimensions of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders and dimensions of negative affect, positive affect, and autonomic arousal. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107 (2), 179–192.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, T. A., DiNardo, P., & Barlow, D. A. (1994). Anxiety disorders interview schedules for DSM-IV (ADIS-IV). Albany, New York: Graywind Publications.Google Scholar
  24. Brown, T. A., Campbell, L. A., Lehman, C. L., Grisham, J. R., & Mancill, R. B. (2001). Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 49–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cairney, J., McCabe, L., Veldhuizen, S., Corna, L. M., Streiner, D., & Herrman, N. (2007). Epidemiology of social phobia in later life. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 224–233.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chorpita, B., & Taylor, A. (2001). Behavioral assessment of anxiety disorders. Practitioner’s guide to empirically based measures of anxiety (pp. 19–24). Dordrecht Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  27. Cochran, S. V. (2005). Evidence-based assessment with men. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 649–660.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Coles, M., & Heimberg, R. (2000, April). Patterns of anxious arousal during exposure to feared situations in individuals with social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38(4), 405–424.Google Scholar
  29. Craske, M. G., Barlow, D. H., & Meadows, E. (2000). Mastery of your anxiety and panic: Therapist guide for anxiety, panic, and agoraphobia (MAP-3). San Antonio, TX: Graywind/Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  30. Craske, M. G., Barlow, D. H., & O’Leary, T. (1992). Mastery of your anxiety and worry. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation/Graywind.Google Scholar
  31. Craske, M. G., Rapee, R. M., & Barlow, D. H. (1988). The significance of panic-expectancy for individual patterns of avoidance. Behavior Therapy, 19, 577–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dawes, R. M., Faust, D., & Meehl, P. E. (1989). Clinical versus actuarial judgment. Science, 243, 1668–1673.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Di Nardo, P. A., Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1994). Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Lifetime Version (ADIS-IV-L). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation/Graywind Publications Incorporated.Google Scholar
  34. Eifert, G. H., & Wilson, P. H. (1991). The triple response approach to assessment: A conceptual and methodological appraisal. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 29, 283–292.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Endicott, J., & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry , 35, 837–844.Google Scholar
  36. Essau, C. A., Conradt, J., & Petermann, F. (2000). Frequency, comorbidity, and psychosocial impairment of anxiety disorders in German adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14, 263–279.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Feske, U., & Chambless, D. L. (2000). A review of assessment measures for obsessive-compulsive disorder. In W. K. Goodman, M. Rudorfer & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Obsessive compulsive disorder: Contemporary issues in treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1997). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders—Clinician Version (SCID-CV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  39. Flint, A. (1994). Epidemiology and comorbididty of anxiety disorders in the elderly. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(5), 640–649.Google Scholar
  40. Flint, A. J. (2005). Generalised anxiety disorder in elderly patients: Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment options. Drugs and Aging, 22, 101–114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fontenelle, L. F., Mendlowicz, M. V., & Versiani, M. (2006). The descriptive epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 30, 327–337.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fresco, D. M., Mennin, D. S., Heimburg, R. G., & Turk, C. L. (2003). Using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire to identify individuals with generalized anxiety disorder: a receiver operating characteristic analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 34, 283–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Friedman, S., & Paradis, C. (2002). Panic disorder in African-Americans: Symptomatology and isolated sleep paralysis. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 26, 179–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fyer, A. J., Endicott, J., Mannuzza, S., & Klein, D. F. (1985). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia: Lifetime Version (modified for the study of anxiety disorders). New York: Anxiety Disorders Clinic, New York State Psychiatric Clinic.Google Scholar
  45. Geller, D. A., Biederman, J., Faraone, S., Agranat, A., Cradock, K., Hagermoser, L., et al. (2001). Developmental aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder: Findings in children, adolescents, and adults. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 471–477.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Goldfried, M. R., & Davison, G. C. (1994). Clinical behavior therapy (Expanded edition). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  47. Grant, B. F., Hasin, D. S., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Goldstein, R. B., Smith, S., et al. (2006). The epidemiology of DSM-IV panic disorder and agoraphobia in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67, 363–374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Grant, B. F., Hasin, D. S., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Ruan, W. J., Goldstein, R. B., et al. (2005). Prevalence, correlates, co-morbidity, and comparative disability of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder in the USA: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1747–1759.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gretarsdottir, E., Woodruff-Borden, J., Meeks, S., & Depp, C. A. (2004). Social anxiety in older adults: Phenomenology, prevalence, and measurement. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 459–475.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hall, R. C., Stickney, S., & Beresford, T. P. (1986). Endocrine disease and behavior. Integrative Psychiatry, 4, 122–130.Google Scholar
  51. Hayes, S. C., Nelson, R. O., & Jarrett, R. B. (1987). The treatment utility of assessment: A functional approach to evaluation assessment quality. American Psychologist, 42, 963–974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Haynes, S. N., Leisen, M. B., & Blaine, D. B. (1997). Design of individualized behavioral treatment programs using functional analytic clinical case models. Psychological Assessment, 9, 334–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Haynes, S. N., & O’Brien, W. H. (2000). Principles and practice of behavioral assessment. New York: Kluwer/Plenum.Google Scholar
  54. Heinberg, R. G., Holt, C. S., Schneier, F. R., Spitzer, R. L., & Leiboqitz, M. R. (1993). The issue of subtypes in the diagnosis of social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 7, 249–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Herbert, J. D., Rheinbold, A. A., & Brandsma, L. L. (2001). Assessment of social anxiety and social phobia. In S. G. Hofmann & P. M. DiBartolo (Eds.), From social anxiety to social phobia: Multiple perspectives. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  56. Himle, J. A., Baser, R. E., Taylor, R. J., Campbell, R. D., & Jackson, J. S. (2009). Anxiety disorders among African Americans, blacks of Caribbean descent, and non-Hispanic whites in the United States, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(5), 578–590.Google Scholar
  57. Himle, J. A., Muroff, J. R., Taylor, R. J., Baser, R. E., Abelson, J. M., Hanna, G. L., et al. (2008). Obsessive-compulsive disorder among African-Americans and Blacks of Caribbean descent: Results from the National Survey of American Life. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 993–1005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hinton, D. E., Chong, R., Pollack, M. H., Barlow, D. H., & McNally, R. J. (2008). Ataque de nervios: Relationship to anxiety sensitivity and dissociation predisposition. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 489–495.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hinton, D., Nathan, M., Bird, B., & Park, L. (2002). Panic probes and the identification of panic: A historical and cross-cultural perspective. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 26, 137–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Inderbitzen, H. M., & Hope, D. (1995). Relationship among adolescent reports of social anxiety, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 9, 385–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kessler, R. C. (1997). The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity. In S. Wetzler & W. C. Sanderson (Eds.), Treatment strategies for patients with psychiatric comorbidity. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Kessler, R., Abelson, J., Demler, O., Escobar, J., Gibbon, M., Guyer, M., et al. (2004). Clinical calibration of DSM-IV diagnoses in the World Mental Health (WMH) version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13(2), 122–139.Google Scholar
  63. Kessler, R. C., Burglund, P. A., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 617–627.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Jin, R., Ruscio, A. M., Shear, K., & Walters, E. E. (2006). The epidemiology of panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 415–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kessler, R. C., Keller, M. B., & Wittchen, H. (2001). The epidemiology of generalized anxiety disorder. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24, 19–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kessler, R. C., Nelson, C. B., McGonagle, K. A., Elund, M. J., Frank, R. G., & Leaf, P. J. (1996). The epidemiology of co-occurring addictive and mental disorders. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 17–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kessler, R. C., & Ustun, T. B. (2005). The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13, 93–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Klein, D., & Klein, H. (1989). The nosology, genetics, and theory of spontaneous panic and phobia. Psychopharmacology of anxiety (pp. 163–195). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Kogan, J. N., Edelstein, B. A., & McKee, D. R. (2000). Assessment of anxiety in older adults: Current status. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14, 109–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kubarych, T. S., Aggen, S. H., Hettema, J. M., Kendler, K. S., & Neale, M. C. (2008). Assessment of generalized anxiety disorder diagnostic criteria in the National Comorbidity Survey and the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Psychological Assessment, 20, 206–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lang, A. J., & Stein, M. B. (2001). Social phobia: Prevalence and diagnostic threshold. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 5–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Liebowitz, M. R., Gorman, J. M., Fyer, A. J., & Klein, D. F. (1985). Social phobia: Review of a neglected anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 729–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Macaulay, J. L., & Kleinknecht, R. A. (1989). Panic and panic attacks in adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 3, 221–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Magee, W. J., Eaton, W. W., Wittchen, H., McGonagle, K. A., & Kessler, R. C. (1996). Agoraphobia, simple phobia, and social phobia in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 159–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Mannuzza, S., Fyer, A., Klein, D. F., & Endicott, J. (1986). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime Version modified for the study of anxiety disorders (SADS-LA): Rationale and conceptual development. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 20, 317–325.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. McCabe, L., Cairney, J., Veldhuizen, S., Herrman, N., & Streiner, D. L. (2006). Prevalence and correlates of agoraphobia in older adults. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 515–522.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. McNeil, D., Reiss, B. J., & Turk, C. L. (1995). Behavioral assessment: Self- and other-report, physiology, and overt behavior. In R. G. Heimberg, M. R. Liebowiz, D. A. Hope & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  79. Meehl, P. E. (1996). Clinical versus statistical prediction: A theoretical analysis and a review of the evidence. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aaronson. (Original work published in 1954)Google Scholar
  80. Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behavior Research and Therapy, 28, 487–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pigott, T. A. (1999). Gender differences in the epidemiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 4–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Rasmussen, S. A., & Eisen, J. L. (1990). Epidemiology of obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 53, 3–10.Google Scholar
  83. Roemer, L., Orsillo, S. M., & Barlow, D. H. (2002). Generalized anxiety disorder. In D. H. Barlow, Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed) (pp. 477–515). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  84. Romano, E., Tremblay, R. E., Vitaro, F., Zoccolillo, M., & Pagan, L. (2001). Prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses and the role of perceived impairment: Findings from an adolescent community sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 451–461.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Sanderson, W. C., & Barlow, D. H. (1990). A description of patients diagnosed with DSM-III-R anxiety disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178, 588–591.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Segal, D. L., Hersen, M., & Van Hasselt, V. B. (1994). Reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R: An evaluative review. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 35, 316–327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Shear, K., Jin, R., Ruscio, A. M., Walters, E. E., & Kessler, R. C. (2006). Prevalence and correlates of estimated DSM-IV child and adult separation anxiety disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1074–1083.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sheehan, D., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., et al. (1998). The Mini-international Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10.Google Scholar
  89. Sheikh, J. I., Swales, P. J., Carlson, E. B., & Lindley, S. E. (2004). Aging and panic disorder: Phenomenology, comorbidity, and risk factors. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12, 102–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Silverman, W. K., & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of anxiety and disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical and Child Adolescent Psychology, 34, 380–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Smith, S. M., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Goldstein, R., Huang, B., & Grant, B. F. (2006). Race/ethnic differences in the prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychological Medicine, 36, 987–998.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Spielberger, C. D. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  93. Steketee, G., & Barlow, D. H. (2000). Obsessive compulsive disorder. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  94. Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Chou, S. P., Smith, S., Goldstein, R. B., Ruan, W. J., et al. (2007). The epidemiology of DSM-IV specific phobia in the USA: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychological Medicine, 37, 1047–1059.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Tallis, F., Eysenck, M. W., & Matthews, A. (1992). A questionnaire for the measurement of non-pathological worry. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 161–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tellegen, A. (1985). Structures of mood and personality and their relevance to assessing anxiety, with an emphasis on self-report. Anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 681–706). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  97. Warren, R., & Zgourides, G. (1988). Panic attacks in high school students: Implications for prevention and intervention. Phobia Practice and Research Journal, 1, 97–113.Google Scholar
  98. Weissman, M. M., Bland, R. C., Canino, G., Faravelli, C., Greenwald, S., Hwu, H., et al. (1997). The cross-national epidemiology of panic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 305–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Weissman, M. M., Canino, G. J., Greenwald, S., Joyce, P. R., Karam, E. G., Lee, C., et al. (1995). Current rates and symptom profiles of panic disorder in six cross-national studies. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 18, S1-S6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. White, K. S., & Barlow, D. H. (2002). Panic disorder and agoraphobia. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  101. Williams, S. L. (1985). On the nature and measurement of agoraphobia. Progress in Behavior Modification, 19, 109–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Wittchen, H. (2002). Generalized anxiety disorder: Prevalence, burden, and cost to society. Depression and Anxiety, 16, 162–171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Wittchen, H., & Hoyer, J. (2001). Generalized anxiety disorder: Nature and course. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 15–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Wittchen, H.-U., Stein, M. B., & Kessler, R. C. (1999). Social fears and social phobia in a community sample of adolescents and young adults: Prevalence, risk factors, and co-morbidity. Psychological Medicine, 29, 309–323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. World Health Organization. (1990). Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
  106. World Health Organization. (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
  107. Zinbarg, R. E., Barlow, D. H., Liebowitz, M. D., Sreet, L., Broadhead, E., Katon, W., et al. (1994). The DSM-IV field trial for mixed anxiety-depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1153–1162.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rose C. Smith
    • 1
  • Lisa S. Elwood
    • 2
  • Matthew T. Feldner
    • 1
  • Bunmi O. Olatunji
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.University of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA
  2. 2.University of Missouri-St. LouisSt LouisUSA
  3. 3.Vanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations