Advertisement

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  • Erin Smith
  • Sheila A. M. RauchEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Lifetime estimates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence in the United States range between 7 and 12% (Breslau, Davis, Andreski, & Peterson, 1991; Kessler, Berglund, Demler, Jin, & Walters, 2005; Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes, & Nelson, 1995; Resnick, Kilpatrick, Dansky, Saunders, & Best, 1993). The percentages vary according to the methodology of the study, definition of traumatic events, and assessment measures used (see below for discussion). Unlike other psychiatric disorders, PTSD requires a particular precipitating event as well as a specific symptom presentation. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) for PTSD criteria are presented in Table 16.1. In describing the disorder, we first focus on the defining trauma and then move to the symptom presentation of PTSD.

Keywords

Sexual Assault Traumatic Event Ptsd Symptom Traumatic Exposure Service Member 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders (4th ed. Text Revision). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Blake, D. D., Weathers, F. W., Nagy, L. M., Kaloupek, D. G., Charney, D. S., & Keane, T. M. (1990). The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale - IV. Boston: National Center for PTSD, Behavioral Sciences Division.Google Scholar
  3. Blanchard, E. B., Gerardi, R. J., Kolb, L. C., & Barlow, D. H. (1986). The utility of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS) in the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Vietnam veterans. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 577–580.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blanchard, E. B., Jones-Alexander, J., Buckley, T. C., & Forneris, C. A. (1996). Psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist (PCL). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 669–673.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bollinger, A., Riggs, D., Blake, D., & Ruzek, J. (2000). Prevalence of personality disorders among combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13, 255–270.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Breslau, N., Davis, G. C., Andreski, P., & Peterson, E. (1991). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 216–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Breslau, N., & Kessler, R. C. (2001). The stressor criterion in DSM-IV Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An empirical investigation. Biological Psychiatry, 50(9), 699–704.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Breslau, N., Kessler, R. C., Chilcoat, H. D., Schultz, L. R., Davis, G. C., & Andreski, P. (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: The 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 626–631.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Breslau, N., Wilcox, H. C., Storr, C. L., Lucia, V. C., & Anthony, J. C. (2004). Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder: A study of youths in urban America. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 81, 530–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Rose, S. (2000a). Fear, helplessness, and horror in post-traumatic stress disorder: Investigating DSM-IV criterion A2 in survivors of violent crime. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13(3), 499–509.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Valentine, J. D. (2000b). Meta-analysis of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 748–766.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., Rose, S., & Kirk, M. (1999). Acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of violent crime. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(3), 360–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown, T. A., DiNardo, P. A., Lehman, C. L., & Campbell, L. A. (2001). Reliability of DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders: Implications for the classification of emotional disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 49–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Davidson, J. R., Malik, M. A., & Travers, J. (1997). Structured Interview for PTSD (SIP): Psychometric validation for DSM-IV criteria. Depression and Anxiety, 5, 127–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Davidson, J. R. T., Smith, R., & Kudler, H. (1989). Validity and reliability of the DSM-III criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder: Experience with a structured interview. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 336–341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. DiGrande, L., Perrin, M., Thorpe, L., Thaliji, L, Murphy, J., Wu, D., et al. (2008). Posttraumatic stress symptoms, PTSD, and risk factors among lower Manhattan residents 2–3 years after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(3), 264–273.Google Scholar
  17. DiNardo, P. A., Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1994). Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Lifetime version (ADIS-IV-L). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  18. DiNardo, P. A., O’Brien, G. T., Barlow, D. H., Waddell, M. T., & Blanchard, E. B. (1983). Reliability of DSM-III anxiety disorder categories using a new structured interview. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 1070–1074.Google Scholar
  19. DiNardo, P. A., Moras, K., Barlow, D. H., Rapee, R. M., & Brown, T. A. (1993). Reliability of DSM-III-R anxiety disorders categories: Using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule - Revised (ADIS-R). Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 251–256.Google Scholar
  20. Dunn, N. J., Yanasak, E., Schilaci, J., Simotas, S., Rehm, L., Soucheck, J., et al. (2004). Personality disorders in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 75–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. (2000). Structured Clinician Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders:(SCID-I). In American Psychiatric Association (Ed.), Handbook of psychiatric measures (pp. 49–53).Washington, DC. American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  22. Foa, E. B., Cashman, L., Jaycox, L., & Perry, K. (1997). The validation of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Psychological Assessment, 9, 445–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2007). Prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD: emotional processing of traumatic experiences. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Foa, F. B., Keane, T. M., & Friedman, M. J. (eds). (2000). Effective treatments for PTSD. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  25. Foa, E. B., Riggs, D. S., Dancu, C. V., & Rothbaum, B. O. (1993). Reliability and validity of a brief instrument for assessing post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 459–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Friedman, M. J., Keane, T. M., & Resick, P. A. (eds). (2007). Handbook of PTSD. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  27. Friedman, M. J., Schnurr, P. P., Sengupta, A., Holmes, T., & Ashcroft, M. (2004). The Hawaii Vietnam Veterans Project: Is minority status a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder? Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(1), 42–50.Google Scholar
  28. Herman, D. S., Weathers, F. W., Litz, B. T., & Keane, T. M. (1996). Psychometric properties of the embedded and stand-alone versions of the MMPI-2 Keane PTSD Scale. Assessment, 3, 437–442.Google Scholar
  29. Hoge, C. W., Achterlonie, J. L., & Milliken, C. S. (2006). Mental health problems, use of mental health services and attrition from military services after returning from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295(9), 1023–1032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Horowitz, M. J., Wilner, N., & Alvarez, W. (1979). Impact of Event Scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41, 209–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hyer, L., Summers, M. N., Boyd, S., Litaker, M., & Boudewyns, P. (1996). Assessment of older combat veterans with the clinician administered PTSD scale. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(3), 587–594.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kashner, T. M., Rush, A. J., Suris, A., Biggs, M., Gajewski, V., Hooker, D., et al. (2003). Impact of structural clinical interviews on physicians’ practices in community mental health settings. Psychiatric Services, 54(5), 712–718.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Keane, T. M., Caddell, J. M., & Taylor, K. L. (1988). Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Three studies in reliability and validity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 85–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kilpatrick, D. G., Ruggiero, K. J., Acierno, R., Saunders, B. E., Resnick, H. S., & Best, C. L. (2003). Violence and risk of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse/dependence, and comorbidity: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(4), 692–700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. King, D. W., Vogt, D. S., & King, L. A. (2004). Risk and resilience factors in etiology of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. In B. T. Litz (Ed.), Early interventions for trauma and traumatic loss in children and adults: Evidence-based directions (pp. 34–64). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  38. Kulka, R. A., Schlenger, W. E., Fairbanks, J. A., Jordan, B. K., Hough, R. L., Marmar, C. R., et al. (1990). Trauma and the Vietnam war generation: Report of findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  39. Ledley, D. R., & Rauch, S. A. M. (2005). Anxiety disorders. In R. J. Craig (Ed.), Clinical and diagnostic interviewing (2nd ed., pp. 145–169). New York: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  40. Lyons, J. A., & Keane, T. M. (1992). Keane PTSD scale: MMPI and MMPI-2 update. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. March, J. S. (1993). What constitutes a stressor? The “criterion A” issue. In J. R. T. Davidson & E. B. Foa (Eds.), Post-traumatic stress disorder: DSM-IV and beyond (pp. 37–54). Washington, DC. American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  42. McFall, M. E., Smith, D. E., Mackay, P. W., & Tarver, D. J. (1990). Reliability and validity of Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2, 114–121.Google Scholar
  43. McFall, M. E., Smith, D. E., Roszel, D. K., Tarver, D. J., & Malas, K. L. (1990). Convergent validity of measures of PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 645–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Miller, P., Dasher, R., Collins, R., Griffiths, P., & Brown, F. (2001). Inpatient diagnostic assessments: Accuracy of structured vs. unstructured interviews. Psychiatry Research, 105(3), 256–264.Google Scholar
  45. Neal, L. A., Busuttil, W., Rollins, J., Herepath, R., Strike, P., & Turnbull, G. (1994). Convergent validity of measures of post-traumatic stress disorder in a mixed military and civilian population. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7, 477–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Norris, F. H. (1992). Epidemiology of trauma: Frequency and impact of different potentially traumatic events on different demographic groups. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 409–418.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Norris, F. H., Foster, J., & Weisshaar, D. (2002). Epidemiology of sex differences in PTSD across developmental, societal, and research context. In R. Kimerling, P. Ouimette & J. Wolfe (Eds.), Gender and PTSD (pp. 3–42). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  48. Norris, F. H., Murphy, A., Baker, C. K., Perilla, J. L., Rodriguez, F. G., Rodriguez Jde, J., et al. (2003). Epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexico. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(4), 646–656.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Pole, N., Gone, J., & Kulkarni, M. (2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder among ethnoracial minorities in the United States. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 15(1), 35–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ramirez Basco, M., Bostic, J. Q., Davies, D., Rush, A. J., Witte, B., Hendrickse, W., et al. (2000). Methods to improve diagnostic accuracy in a community mental health setting. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1599–1605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Rauch, S. A. M., & Foa, E. B. (2003). Post-traumatic stress disorder. In D. Nutt & J. Ballenger (Eds.), Anxiety disorders (pp. 65–81). Malden, MA: Blackwell Science Ltd.Google Scholar
  52. Resick, P. A., & Schnicke, M. K. (1992). Cognitive processing therapy for sexual assault victims: A treatment manual. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  53. Resick, P. A., & Schnicke, M. K. (1993). Cognitive processing therapy for rape victims: A treatment manual. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  54. Resnick, H. S., Kilpatrick, D. G., Dansky, B. S., Saunders, B. E., & Best, C. L. (1993). Prevalence of civilian trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a representative national sample of women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(6), 984–991.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Riggs, D. S., Rothbaum, B. O., & Foa, E. B. (1995). A prospective examination of post-traumatic stress disorder in survivors of nonsexual assault. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10(2), 201–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Croughan, J. L., & Ratcliff, K. S. (1981). National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Its history, characteristics, and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 381–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Rothbaum, B. O., Foa, E. B., Rigge, D. S., Murdoch, T., & Walsh, W. A. (1992). A prospective examination of post-traumatic stress disorder in rape survivors. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5(3), 455–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Saxe, G., & Wofle, J. (1999). Gender and posttraumatic stress disorder. In P. Saigh & J. D. Bremner (Eds.), Posttraumatic stress disorder: A comprehensive text (pp. 160–179). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  59. Shalev, A., Orr, S., & Pitman, R. (1993). Psychophysiologic assessment of traumatic imagery in Israeli civilian patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 620–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Stien, M. B., Walker, J. R., Hazen, A. L., & Forde, D. R. (1997). Full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder: Findings from a community survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(8), 1114–1119.Google Scholar
  61. Sudin, E. C., & Horowitz, M. J. (2002). Impact of Events Scale: Psychometric properties. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 205–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. The RAND Corporation (2008). RAND study finds one in five Iraq and Afghanistan veterans suffer from PTSD or major depression. Ascribe Medicine News Services, April 17Google Scholar
  63. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2003). 2001 National Survey of Veterans, Final Report. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  64. Watson, C., Juba, M. P., Manifold, V., Kucala, T., & Anderson, P. E. (1991). The PTSD Interview: Rationale, description, reliability, and concurrent validity of a DSM-III-based technique. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47, 179–188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Weathers, F. W., Keane, T. M., & Davidson, J. R. (2001). Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS): A review of the first ten years of research. Depression and Anxiety, 13, 132–156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Weathers, F. W., Litz, B. T., Herman, D. S., Huska, J. A. & Keane, T. M. (1993, October). The PTSD Checklist (PCL): Reliability, validity, and diagnostic utility. Poster presented at the 9th annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, San Antonio, TX.Google Scholar
  67. Weathers, F. W., Ruscio, A. M., & Keane, T. M. (1999). Psychometric properties of nine scoring rules for the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Psychological Assessment, 11, 124–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Weiss, D. S., & Marmar, C. R. (1997). The Impact of Events Scale-Revised. In J. P. Wilson & T. M. Keane (Eds.), Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 399–428). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, University of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations