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Extracellular Protein Interactions Mediated by the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule, NCAM: Heterophilic Interactions Between NCAM and Cell Adhesion Molecules, Extracellular Matrix Proteins, and Viruses

  • Janne Nielsen
  • Nikolaj Kulahin
  • Peter S. WalmodEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 663)

Abstract

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) mediate cell-to-cell interactions and interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), a prototypic member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily of CAMs, mediates adhesion through homophilic and heterophilic interactions, thereby modulating a range of biological processes. This review summarizes interactions between NCAM and other CAMs and ECM proteins. Additionally, the role of NCAM as a receptor for rabies virus, and its implications in rabies infections is briefly described. Interactions between NCAM and its heterophilic partners involve most of the NCAM extracellular modules and are mediated via amino acids and carbohydrates. The interactions promote cell adhesion and trigger signal transduction and alterations in cytoskeletal dynamics and organization. Heterophilic NCAM interactions may modulate, or be modulated by, homophilic NCAM interactions. Furthermore, some of the interactions are mutually exclusive, whereas others might lead to the formation of multimeric protein complexes. Consequently, biological processes affected by NCAM interactions are regulated in a complex manner involving many extracellular protein interactions.

Keywords

Cell adhesion molecule Extracellular matrix Proteoglycan Prion Rabies virus 

Abbreviations

CAH

Carbonic anhydrase

CAM

Cell adhesion molecule

CHL1

Close homolog of L1

CNS

Central nervous system

CSPG

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans

ECM

Extracellular matrix

FGFR

Fibroblast growth factor receptor

FnIII

Fibronectin type 3

GAG

Glycosaminoglycans

GDNF

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor

GPI

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol

HB-GAM

Heparin-binding growth-associated molecule

HBD

Heparin binding domain

HNK-1

Human natural killer-1

HSPG

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans

Kd

Equilibrium dissociation constant

LRP

Laminin receptor precursor

MSD1

Muscle-specific domain 1

NCAM

Neural cell adhesion molecule

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

PG

Proteoglycans

PI-PLC

Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C

PrP

Protease resistant protein

RPTP

Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase

PSA

Polysialic acid

RABV

Rabies virus

SOS

Sucrose octasulfate

SPR

Surface plasmon resonance

VASE

Variable alternative spliced exon

Notes

Acknowledgments

The financial support from “Snedkermester Sophus Jacobsen og hustru Astrid Jacobsens Fond”, “Det Lægevidenskabelige Fakultets Fond for videnskabeligt ansatte kandidater og studerende ved Københavns Universitet”, ENKAM Pharmaceuticals A/S, and the Graduate School of Neuroscience, University of Copenhagen, and the EU-funded brain research consortium PROMEMORIA (LSHM-CT-2005-512012) is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janne Nielsen
  • Nikolaj Kulahin
  • Peter S. Walmod
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Protein LaboratoryPanum InstituteCopenhagen NDenmark

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