Effects of Senescent Changes in Audition and Cognition on Spoken Language Comprehension

  • Bruce A. SchneiderEmail author
  • Kathy Pichora-Fuller
  • Meredyth Daneman
Part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research book series (SHAR, volume 34)


Older individuals often find it difficult to communicate, especially in group situations, because they are unable to keep up with the flow of conversation or are too slow in comprehending what they are hearing. These communication difficulties are often exacerbated by negative stereotypes held by their communication partners who often perceive older adults as less competent than they actually are (Ryan et al. 1986). Sometimes, older adults’ communication problems motivate them, often at the prompting of their family and friends, to seek help from hearing specialists (O’Mahoney et al. 1996). Quite often, however, older adults and/or their family members wonder if these comprehension difficulties are a sign of cognitive decline. Such uncertainty on the part of both older adults and their family members with respect to the source of communication difficulties is understandable given that age-related changes in the comprehension of spoken language could be due to age-related changes in hearing, to age-related declines in cognitive functioning, or to interactions between these two levels of processing. To participate effectively in a multitalker conversation, listeners need to do more than simply recognize and repeat speech. They have to keep track of who said what, extract the meaning of each utterance, store it in memory for future use, integrate the incoming information with what each conversational participant has said in the past, and draw on the listener’s own knowledge of the topic under consideration to extract general themes and formulate responses. In other words, effective communication requires not only an intact auditory system but also an intact cognitive system.


Hearing Loss Speech Recognition Sound Source Work Memory Capacity Target Sentence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by grants from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (RGPIN 2690, RGPIN 138472, RGPIN 9952) and Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MGC 42665, MT 15359).


  1. Alain C, McDonald KL, Ostroff JM, Schneider B (2001) Age-related changes in detecting a mistuned haromonic. J Acoust Soc Am 109:2211–2216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alain C, McDonald KL, Ostroff JM, Schneider BA (2004) Aging: a switch from automatic to controlled processing of sounds? Psychol Aging 19:125–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alain C, Dyson BJ, Snyder JS (2006) Aging and the perceptual organization of sounds: a change of scene? In: Conn MP (ed) Handbook of Models for Human Aging. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, pp. 759–769.Google Scholar
  4. Allen NH, Burns A, Newton V, Hickson F, Ramsden R, Rogers J, Butler S, Thistlewaite G, Morris J (2003) The effects of improving hearing in dementia. Age Ageing 32:189–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Appolonio I, Carabellese C, Frattola L, Trabucchi M (1996) Effects of sensory aids on the quality of life and mortality of elderly people: a multivariate analysis. Age Ageing 25:89–96.Google Scholar
  6. Baddeley AD (1986) Working Memory. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Baddeley AD (1993) Working memory or working attention? In: Baddeley AD, Weiskrantz L (eds) Attention: Selection, Awareness and Control. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 157–170.Google Scholar
  8. Bergeson TR, Schneider BA, Hamstra SJ (2001) Duration discrimination in younger and older adults. Can Acoust 29:3–9.Google Scholar
  9. Boehnke SE, Phillips DP (1999) Azimuthal tuning of human perceptual channels for sound location. J Acoust Soc Am 106:1948–1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boettcher FA, Mills JH, Swerdloff JL, Holley BL (1996) Auditory evoked potentials in aged gerbils: responses elicited by noises separated by a silent gap. Hear Res 102:167–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bolia RS, Nelson WT, Ericson MA, Simpson BD (2000) A speech corpus for multitalker communications research. J Acoust Soc Am 107:1065–1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boothroyd A (2007) Adult aural rehabilitation: what is it and does it work? Trends Amplif 11:63–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bopp KL, Verhaeghen P (2005) Aging and verbal memory span: a meta-analysis. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 60:P223-P233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brébion G (2003) Working memory, language comprehension, and aging: four experiments to understand a deficit. Exp Aging Res 29: 269–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bregman AS (1990) Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  16. Brennan M, Horowitz A, Su Y-P (2005) Dual sensory loss and its impact on everyday competence. Gerontologist 45:337–346.Google Scholar
  17. Brungart DS (2001) Informational and energetic masking effects in the perception of two simultaneous talkers. J Acoust Soc Am 109:1101–1109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Burke DM (1997) Language, aging, and inhibitory deficits: evaluation of a theory. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 52:P254-P264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cacciatore F, Napoli C, Abete P, Marciano E, Triassi M, Rengo F (1999) Quality of life determinants and hearing function in an elderly population: Osservatorio Geriatrico Campano Study Group. Gerontology 45:323–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cerella J (1990) Aging and information-processing rate. In: Birren JE, Schaie KW (eds) Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, 3rd Ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 201–221.Google Scholar
  21. Chia E-M, Wang JJ, Rochtchina R, Cumming RR, Newall P, Mitchell P (2007) Hearing impairment and health-related quality of life: The Blue Mountain Hearing Study. Ear Hear 28:187–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Chisolm TH, Willott JF, Lister JJ (2003) The aging auditory system: anatomic and physiologic changes and implications for rehabilitation. Int J Audiol 42:S3-S10.Google Scholar
  23. Chisolm TH, Johnson CE, Danhauer JL, Portz LJP, Abrams H, Lesner S, McCarthy PA, Newman CW (2007) A systematic review of health-related quality of life and hearing aids: final report of the American Academy of Audiology Task Force on the Health-Related Quality of Life Benefits of Amplification on Adults. J Am Acad Audiol 18:151–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohen G (1979) Language comprehension in old age. Cognit Psychol 11:412–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cohen-Mansfield J, Infeld DL (2006) Hearing aids for nursing home residents: current policy and future needs. Health Policy 79:49–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Craik FIM, Byrd M (1982) Aging and cognitive deficits: the role of attentional resources. In: Craik FIM, Trehub S (eds) Aging and Cognitive Processes. New York: Plenum, pp. 191–211.Google Scholar
  27. Craik FIM, Lockhart RS (1972) Levels of processing: a framework for memory research. J Verb Learn Verb Behav 11:671–684.Google Scholar
  28. Czaja SJ, Charness N, Fisk AD, Hertzog C, Nair SN, Rogers WA, Sharit J (2006) Factors predicting the use of technology: findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE). Psychol Aging 21:333–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dai H, Scharf B, Buus S (1991) Effective attenuation of signals in noise under focused attention. J Acoust Soc Am 89:2837–2842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dallos P (1997) Outer hair cells: the inside story. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 106:16–22.Google Scholar
  31. Daneman M, Carpenter PA (1980) Individual differences in working memory and reading. J Verb Learn Verb Behav 19:450–466.Google Scholar
  32. Daneman M, Merikle PM (1996) Working memory and comprehension: a meta-analysis. Psychon Bull Rev 3:422–433.Google Scholar
  33. Davis H, Silverman R (1970) Hearing and Deafness. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  34. de Cheveigné A (1997) Concurrent vowel identification. III. A neural model of harmonic interference cancellation. J Acoust Soc Am 101:2857–2865.Google Scholar
  35. DeDe G, Caplan D, Kemtes K, Waters G (2004) The relationship between age, verbal working memory, and language comprehension. Psychol Aging 19:601–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dubno JR, Ahlstrom JB, Horwitz AR (2000) Use of context by young and aged adults in normal hearing. J Acoust Soc Am 107:538–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Edwards B (2007) The future of hearing aid technology. Trends Amplif 11:31–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Elby EM, Parhad IM, Hogan DB, Fung TS (1994) Prevalence and types of dementia in the very old: results from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Neurology 44:1593–1600.Google Scholar
  39. Freyman RL, Helfer KS, McCall DD, Clifton RK (1999) The role of perceived spatial separation in the unmasking of speech. J Acoust Soc Am 106:3578–3588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Freyman RL, Balakrishnan U, Helfer KS (2004) Effect of number of masking talkers and auditory priming on informational masking in speech recognition. J Acoust Soc Am 115:2246–2256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gallacher J (2005) Hearing, cognitive impairment and aging: a critical review. Rev Clin Gerontol 14:1–11.Google Scholar
  42. Garstecki DC, Erler SF (1998) Hearing and aging. Topics Geriatr Rehabil 14:1–17.Google Scholar
  43. Gatehouse S, Naylor G, Elberling C (2003) Benefits from hearing aids in relation to the interaction between the user and the environment. Int J Audiol 42, Suppl 1:S77-S85.Google Scholar
  44. Gatehouse S, Naylor G, Elberling C (2006) Linear and nonlinear hearing aid fittings - 2. Patterns of candidature. Int J Audiol 45:153–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gates GA, Mills JH (2005) Presbycusis. Lancet 366:1111–1120.Google Scholar
  46. Gates GA, Beiser A, Rees TS, Agostino RB, Wolf PA (2002) Central auditory dysfunction may precede the onset of clinical dementia in people with probable Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 50:482–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. George ELJ, Zekveld AA, Kramer SE, Goverts ST, Festen JM, Houtgast T (2007) Auditory and nonauditory factors affecting speech reception in noise by older listeners. J Acoust Soc Am 121:2362–2375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Golding M, Taylor A, Cupples L, Mitchell P (2006) Odds of demonstrating auditory processing abnormality in the average older adult: the Blue Mountains hearing study. Ear Hear 27:129–138.Google Scholar
  49. Gordon MS, Schneider BA (2007) Gain control in the auditory system: absolute identification of intensity within and across two ears. Percept Psychophys 69:232–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gordon MS, Daneman M, Schneider BA (2009). Comprehension of speeded discourse by younger and older listeners. Exp Aging Res 35:277–296.Google Scholar
  51. Gordon-Salant S, Fitzgibbons PJ (1993) Temporal factors and speech recognition performance in young and elderly listeners. J Speech Hear Res 36:1276–1285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gordon-Salant S, Fitzgibbons PJ (1997) Selected cognitive factors and speech recognition performance. J Speech Lang Hear Res 40:423–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gordon-Salant S, Fitzgibbons PJ (1999) Profile of auditory temporal processing in older adults. J Speech Lang Hear Res 44:709–719.Google Scholar
  54. Greenberg S (1996) Auditory processing of speech. In: Lass NJ (ed) Principles of Experimental Phonetics. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, pp. 362–407.Google Scholar
  55. Hafter ER, Schlauch RS (1991) Cognitive factors and selection of auditory listening bands. In: Dancer AL, Henderson D, Salvi RJ, Hammernik RP (eds) Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. Philadelphia, PA: B. C. Decker, pp. 303–310.Google Scholar
  56. Hasher L, Zacks RT (1988) Working memory, comprehension, and aging: a review and a new view. In: Bower GH (ed) The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 22. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 193–225.Google Scholar
  57. Hasher L, Zacks RT, May CP (1999) Inhibitory control, circadian arousal, and age. In: Gopher D, Koriat A (eds) Attention and Performance XVII: Cognitive Regulation of Performance: Interaction of Theory and Application. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 653–675.Google Scholar
  58. Heinrich A, Schneider BA, Craik FIM (2008) Investigating the influence of continuous babble on auditory short-term memory performance. Q J Exp Psychol 5:735–751.Google Scholar
  59. Hétu R (1996) The stigma attached to hearing impairment. Scand Audiol Suppl 43:12–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hickson L, Worrall L (2003) Beyond hearing aid fitting: improving communication for older adults. Int J Audiol 42:S84-S91.Google Scholar
  61. Hoek D, Pichora-Fuller MK, Paccioretti D, MacDonald MA, Shyng G (1997) Community outreach to hard-of-hearing seniors. J Speech Lang Pathol Audiol 21:199–208.Google Scholar
  62. Humes LE (1996) Speech understanding in the elderly. J Am Acad Audiol 7:161–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Humes LE (2003) Modeling and predicting hearing aid outcome. Trends Amplif 7:41–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Humes LE (2007) The contributions of audibility and cognitive factors to the benefit provided by amplified speech to older adults. J Am Acad Audiol 18:590–603.Google Scholar
  65. Humes LE, Lee JH, Coughlin MP (2006) Auditory measures of selective and divided attention in young and older adults using single-talker competition. J Acoust Soc Am 120:2926–2937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hy LX, Keller DM (2000) Prevalence of AD among whites: a summary by levels of severity. Neurology 55:198–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ison JR, Virag TM, Allen PD, Hammond GR (2002) The attention filter for tones in noise has the same shape and effective bandwidth in the elderly as it has in younger listeners. J Acoust Soc Am 112:238–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Jennings MB (2005) Audiologic rehabilitation needs of older adults with hearing loss: views on assistive technology uptake and appropriate support services. J Speech Lang Pathol Audiol 29:112–124.Google Scholar
  69. Johnson RE (2003) Aging and the remembering of text. Dev Rev 23:261–346.Google Scholar
  70. Kemper S (1992) Language and aging. In: Craik FIM, Salthouse TA (eds) The Handbook of Aging and Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 213–270.Google Scholar
  71. Kidd G Jr, Arbogast TL, Mason CR, Gallun FJ (2005) The advantage of knowing where to listen. J Acoust Soc Am 118:3804–3815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kiessling J, Pichora-Fuller MK, Gatehouse S, Stephens D, Arlinger S, Chisolm T, Davis AC, Erber NP, Hickson L, Holmes A, Rosenhall U, von Wedel H(2003). Candidature for and delivery of audiological services: special needs of older people. Int J Audiol volume 42, issue 6, supplement 2:S92-S101.Google Scholar
  73. Kochkin S (1993) MarkeTrak III: why 20 million in the US don’t use hearing aids for their hearing loss. Hear J 46:28–31.Google Scholar
  74. Kramer SE, Allessie GHM, Dondorp AW, Zekveld AA, Kapteyn TS (2005) A home education program for older adults with hearing impairment and their significant others: a randomized trial evaluating short- and long-term effects. Int J Audiol 44:255–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kricos PB (2006) Audiologic management of older adults with hearing loss and compromised cognitive/psychoacoustic auditory processing capabilities. Trends Amplif 10:1–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kwong See ST, Ryan E (1995) Cognitive mediation of adult age differences in language performance. Psychol Aging 10:458–468.Google Scholar
  77. Li L, Daneman M, Qi J, Schneider BA (2004) Does the information content of an irrelevant source differentially affect spoken word recognition in younger and older adults? J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 30:1077–1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Light L (1990) Interactions between memory and language in old age. In: Birren JE, Schaie KW (eds) Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, 3rd Ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 275–290.Google Scholar
  79. Lin MY, Gutierrez PR, Stone KL, Yaffe K, Ensrud KE, Fink HA, Sarkisian CA, Coleman AL, Mangione CM (2004) Vision impairment and combined vision and hearing impairment predict cognitive and functional decline in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 52:1996–2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lindenberger U, Baltes PB (1994) Sensory functioning and intelligence in old age: a sensory connection. Psychol Aging 9:339–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lunner T (2003) Cognitive function in relation to hearing aid use. Int J Audiol 42:S49–S58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lunner T, Sundewall-Thorén E (2007) Interactions between cognition, compression, and listening conditions: effects on speech-in-noise performance in a two-channel hearing aid. J Am Acad Audiol 18:604–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Mayr U, Spieler DH, Kliegl R (2001) Aging and Executive Control. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  84. McCormack T, Brown GDA, Maylor EA, Richardson LBN, Darby RJ (2002) Effects of aging on absolute identification of duration. Psychol Aging 17:363–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. McCoy SL, Tun PA, Cox I, Colangelo M, Stewart RA, Wingfield A (2005) Hearing loss and perceptual effort: downstream effects on older adults’ memory for speech. Q J Exp Psychol 58:22–33.Google Scholar
  86. McDowd JM, Shaw RJ (2000) Attention and aging: a functional perspective. In: Craik FIM, Salthouse TA (eds) The Handbook of Aging and Cognition, 2nd Ed. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 221–292.Google Scholar
  87. Miller GA (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychol Rev 63: 81–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Mills JH, Schmiedt RA, Schulte BA, Dubno JR (2006) Age-related hearing loss: a loss of voltage, not hair cells. Semin Hear 27:228–236.Google Scholar
  89. Miyake A, Shah P (1999) Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of Active Maintenance and Executive Control. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Mondor TA, Zatorre RJ, Terrio NA (1998) Constraints on the selection of auditory information. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 24:66–79.Google Scholar
  91. Mulrow CD, Aguilar C, Endicott JE, Tuley MR, Velez R, Charlip WS, Rhodes MC, Hill JA, DeNino LA (1990) Quality-of-life changes and hearing impairment. Ann Intern Med 113:188–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Mulrow CD, Tuley MR, Aguilar C (1992) Sustained benefits of hearing aids. J Speech Hear Res 35:1402–1405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Murphy DR, Craik FIM, Li KZH, Schneider BA (2000) Comparing the effects of aging and background noise on short-term memory performance. Psychol Aging 15:323–334.Google Scholar
  94. Murphy DR, Daneman M, Schneider BA (2006a) Why do older adults have difficulty following conversations? Psychol Aging 21:49–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Murphy DR, Schneider BA, Speranza F, Moraglia G (2006b) A comparison of higher-order auditory processes in younger and older adults. Psychol Aging 21:763–773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Nobili R, Mammano F, Ashmore J (1998) How well do we understand the cochlea? Trends Neurosci 21:159–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. O’Mahoney CFO, Stephens SDG, Cadge BA (1996) Who prompts patients to consult about hearing loss? Br J Audiol 30:153–158.Google Scholar
  98. Palmer CV, Adams SW, Bourgeois M, Durrant J, Ross M (1999) Reduction in caregiver-identified problem behaviors in patients with Alzheimer disease post-hearing-aid fitting. J Speech Lang Hear Res 42:312–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Parker S, Murphy DR, Schneider B (2002) Top-down gain control in the auditory system: evidence from identification and discrimination experiments. Percept Psychophys 64:598–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Peters CA, Potter JF, Scholer SG (1988) Hearing impairment as a predictor of cognitive decline in dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 36:981–986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Pichora-Fuller MK (2006) Perceptual effort and apparent cognitive decline: implications for audiologic rehabilitation. Semin Hear 27:284–293.Google Scholar
  102. Pichora-Fuller MK (2007) Audition and cognition: what audiologists need to know about listening. In: Palmer C, Seewald R (eds) Hearing Care for Adults. Stäfa, Switzerland: Phonak, pp. 71–85.Google Scholar
  103. Pichora-Fuller MK (2008) Use of supportive context by younger and older adult listeners: balancing bottom-up and top-down information processing. Int J Audiol volume 47, issue 1, supplement 2: S72-S82.Google Scholar
  104. Pichora-Fuller MK, Robertson L (1997) Planning and evaluation of a hearing rehabilitation program in a home-for-the-aged: use of hearing aids and assistive listening devices. J Speech Lang Pathol Audiol 21:174–186.Google Scholar
  105. Pichora-Fuller MK, Schow R (2007) Audiologic rehabilitation for adults: assessment and management. In: Schow RL, Nerbonne MA (eds) Introduction to Audiologic Rehabilitation, 5th Ed. Boston: Allyn Bacon, pp. 367–434.Google Scholar
  106. Pichora-Fuller MK, Singh G (2006) Effects of age on auditory and cognitive processing: Implications for hearing aid fitting and audiological rehabilitation. Trends Amplif 10:29–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Pichora-Fuller MK, Schneider BA, Daneman M (1995) How young and old adults listen to and remember speech in noise. J Acoust Soc Am 97:593–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Pichora-Fuller MK, Schneider BA, MacDonald E, Pass HE, Brown S (2007) Temporal jitter disrupts speech intelligibility. Hear Res 223:114–121.Google Scholar
  109. Pickles JO (1988) An Introduction to the Physiology of Hearing, 2nd Ed. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  110. Plomp R, Mimpen AM (1979) Speech-reception threshold for sentences as a function of age and noise level. J Acoust Soc Am 66:1333–1342.Google Scholar
  111. Rabbitt PMA (1968) Channel-capacity, intelligibility and immediate memory. Q J Exp Psychol 20:241–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Rabbitt PMA (1991) Mild hearing loss can cause apparent memory failures which increase with age and reduce with IQ. Acta Otolaryngol 476:167–176.Google Scholar
  113. Robles L, Ruggero MA (2001) Mechanics of the mammalian cochlea. Physiol Rev 81:1305–1352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Rönnberg J, Rudner M, Foo C, Lunner T (2008). Cognition counts: A working memory system for ease of language understanding. Int J Audiol., volume 47, issue 1, supplement 2: S99-S105.Google Scholar
  115. Ryan EB, Giles H, Baroclucci G, Henwood K (1986) Psycholinguistic and social psychological components of communication by and with the elderly. Lang Commun 6:1–24.Google Scholar
  116. Salthouse TA (1996) The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Psychol Rev 103:403–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Scharf B, Magnun J, Collett L, Ulmer E, Chays A (1994) On the role of the olivocochlear bundle in hearing: a case study. Hear Res 75:11–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Scharf B, Magnun J, Chays A (1997) On the role of the olivocochlear bundle in hearing: 16 case studies. Hear Res 103:101–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Schneider BA, Pichora-Fuller MK (2000) Implications of perceptual deterioration for cognitive aging research. In: Craik FIM, Salthouse TA (eds) The Handbook of Aging and Cognition, 2nd Ed. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 155–219.Google Scholar
  120. Schneider BA, Daneman M, Murphy DR, Kwong See S (2000) Listening to discourse in distracting settings: the effects of aging. Psychol Aging 15:110–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Schneider BA, Daneman M, Murphy DR (2005) Speech comprehension difficulties in older adults: cognitive slowing or age-related changes in hearing? Psychol Aging 20:261–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Schneider BA, Li L, Daneman M (2007) How competing speech interferes with speech comprehension in everyday listening situations. J Am Acad Audiol 18:578–591.Google Scholar
  123. Shallice T, Burgess P (1993) Supervisory control of action and thought selection. In: Baddeley A, Weiskrantz L (eds) Attention: Selection, Awareness and Control. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 171–187.Google Scholar
  124. Shannon RV, Zeng F, Kamath V, Wygonski J (1995) Speech recognition with primarily temporal cues. Science 270:303–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Sheldon S, Pichora-Fuller MK, Schneider BA (2008a) Effect of age, presentation method, and training on identification of noise-vocoded words. J Acoust Soc Am 123:476–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sheldon S, Pichora-Fuller MK, Schneider BA (2008b) Priming and sentence context support listening to noise-vocoded speech by younger and older adults. J Acoust Soc Am 123:489–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Singh G, Pichora-Fuller MK, Schneider BA (2008).The effect of age on auditory spatial attention in conditions of real and simulated spatial separation by younger and older adults. J Acoust Soc Am 124: 1294–1305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Snyder JS, Alain C (2005) Age-related changes in neural activity associated with concurrent vowel segregation. Cogn Brain Res 24:492–499.Google Scholar
  129. Snyder JS, Alain C (2007) Toward a neurophysiological theory of auditory stream segregation. Psychol Bull 133:780–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Stark P, Hickson L (2004) Outcomes of hearing aid fitting for older people with hearing impairment and their significant others. Int J Audiol 43:390–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Stine EAL (1995) Aging and the distribution of resources in working memory. In: Allen PA, Bashore TA (eds) Age Differences in Word and Language Processing. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 171–187.Google Scholar
  132. Stine EAL, Hindman J (1994) Age differences in reading time allocation for propositionally dense sentences. Aging Cogn 1:2–16.Google Scholar
  133. Stine EAL, Cheung H, Henderson D (1995) Adult age differences in the on-line processing of new concepts in discourse. Aging Cogn 2:1–18.Google Scholar
  134. Stine-Morrow EAL, Milinder LA, Pullara O, Herman B (2001) Patterns of resource allocation are reliable among younger and older readers. Psychol Aging 16:69–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Strouse AL, Hall JW III, Burger MC (1995) Central auditory processing in Alzheimer’s disease. Ear Hear 16:230–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Summerfield Q, Assmann PF (1991) Perception of concurrent vowels: effects of harmonic misalignment and pitch-period asynchrony. J Acoust Soc Am 89:1364–1377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Summers V, Leek MR (1998) F0 processing and the separation of competing speech signals by listeners with normal hearing and with hearing loss. J Speech Lang Hear Res 41:1294–1306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Tesch-Romer C (1997) Psychological effects of hearing aid use in older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 52:P127-P138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Titone D, Prentice KJ, Wingfield A (2000) Resource allocation during spoken discourse processing: effects of age and passage difficulty as revealed by self-paced listening. Mem Cogn 28:1029–1040.Google Scholar
  140. Tun PA, Wingfield A, Stine EAL (1991) Speech processing capacity in young and older adults: a dual-task study. Psychol Aging 6:3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Tun PA, Wingfield A, Stine EAL, Mecsas C (1992) Rapid speech and divided attention: processing rate versus processing resources as an explanation of age effects. Psychol Aging 7:546–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Uhlmann RF, Larson EB, Rees TS, Koepsell TD, Duckert LG (1989a) Relationship of hearing impairment to dementia and cognitive dysfunction in older adults. J Am Med Assoc 261: 1916–1919.Google Scholar
  143. Uhlmann RF, Teri L, Rees TS, Mozlowski KJ, Larson EB (1989b) Impact of mild to moderate hearing loss on mental status testing. J Am Geriatr Soc 37:223–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Valentijn SAM, Van Boxtel MPJ, Van Hooren SAH, Bosma H, Beckers HJM, Ponds RWHM, Jolles J (2005) Change in sensory functioning predicts change in cognitive functioning: results from a 6-year follow-up in the Maastricht aging study. J Am Geriatr Soc 53:374–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Van Boxtel MPJ, van Beijsterveldt T, Houx PJ, Anteunis LJC, Metsemakers JFM, Jolles J (2000) Mild hearing impairment can reduce verbal memory performance in a healthy older adult population. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 22:147–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Van der Linden M, Brédart S, Beerten A (1994) Age-related differences in updating working memory. Br J Psychol 85:145–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Van der Linden M, Hupet M, Feyereisen P, Schelstraete M, Bestgen M, Bruyer G L, Abdessadek EA, Seron X (1999) Cognitive mediators of age-related differences in language comprehension and verbal processing. Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 6:32–55.Google Scholar
  148. Van Hooren SAH, Anteunis LJC, Valentijn SAM, Bosma H, Ponds RWHM, Jolles J, van Boxtel MPJ (2005) Does cognitive function in older adults with hearing impairment improve by hearing aid use? Int J Audiol 44, issue 5,:265–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. van Rooij JCGM, Plomp R (1992). Auditive and cognitive factors in speech perception by elderly listeners: III. Additional data and final discussion. J Acoust Soc Am 91:1028–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Verhaeghen P, Salthouse TA (1997). Meta-analysis of age-cognition relations in adulthood: estimates of linear and non-linear age effects and structural models. Psychol Bull 122:231–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Verhaeghen P, Marcoen A, Goossens L (1993) Facts and fiction about memory aging: a quantitative integration of research findings. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 48:157–171.Google Scholar
  152. Verhaeghen P, Steitz DW, Sliwinski MJ, Cerella J (2003) Aging and dual-task performance: a meta-analysis. Psychol Aging 18:443–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Verhaeghen P, Cerella J, Bopp KL, Basak C (2005) Aging and varieties of cognitive control: a review of meta-analyses on resistance to interference, coordination, and task switching, and an experimental exploration of age-sensitivity in the newly identified process of focus switching. In: Engle RW, Sedek G, Von Hecker U, McIntosh DN (eds) Cognitive limitations in aging and psychopathology. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 160–189.Google Scholar
  154. Vongpaisal T, Pichora-Fuller MK (2007) Effect of age on F0 difference limen and concurrent vowel identification. J Speech Lang Hear Res 50:1139–1156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Wahl H-W, Heyl V (2003) Connections between vision, hearing, and cognitive function in old age. Generations 27:39–45.Google Scholar
  156. West MJ (1996) An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging. Psychol Bull 120:272–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Willott JF (1991) Aging and the Auditory System: Anatomy, Physiology, and Psychophysics. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  158. Wingfield A (1996) Cognitive factors in auditory performance: context, speed of processing, and constraints of memory. J Am Acad Audiol 7:175–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Wingfield A, Stine EAL (1992) Age differences in perceptual processing and memory for spoken language. In: Simon JD, West RL (eds) Everyday Memory and Aging: Current Research and Methodology. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 101–123.Google Scholar
  160. Wingfield A, Tun PA (2007) Cognitive supports and cognitive constraints on comprehension of spoken language. J Am Acad Audiol 18:548–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Wingfield A, Poon LW, Lombardi L, Lowe D (1985) Speed of processing in normal aging: effects of speech rate, linguistic structure, and processing time. J Gerontol 40:579–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Wingfield A, Tun PA, Koh CK, Rosen MJ (1999) Regaining lost time: adult aging and the effect of restoration on recall of time-compressed speech. Psychol Aging 14:380–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Zacks RT, Hasher L (1994) Directed ignoring. Inhibitory regulation of working memory. In: Dagenbach D, Carr TH (eds) Inhibitory Processes in Attention, Memory, and Language. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 241–264.Google Scholar
  164. Zurek PM (1987) The precedence effect. In: Yost WA, Gourevitch G (eds) Directional Hearing. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 85–105.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce A. Schneider
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kathy Pichora-Fuller
    • 1
  • Meredyth Daneman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Toronto MississaugaMississaugaCanada

Personalised recommendations