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Antibodies in Biosensing

Chapter

Abstract

Biosensing, the detection of biological phenomena with accuracy and precision, is a rapidly growing and increasingly divergent field. The requirement for a stable, adaptable, and highly specific recognition receptor is of paramount importance to the design of a good biosensing assay. Among the receptors currently used in these applications, the antibody is perhaps the only one designed by evolution to be a natural biosensor. A greater understanding of the genetics of antibodies has given researchers the ability to manipulate their structure and to take advantage of the vast range of possible specificities. The platforms that rely on antibodies as recognition receptors, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry, radioimmunoassay (RIA), immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, and antibody arrays, have evolved significantly to include new techniques and greater multiplexing opportunities. Here we give an overview of these techniques, and the ways in which the development of these biosensing assays are revolutionizing basic research, diagnostics, and therapeutics.

Keywords

Horseradish peroxidase Alkaline phosphatase Streptavidin Immunoprecipitation Chromatin immunoprecipitation Radioimmunoassay Enzyme immunoassay Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Sandwich ELISA ELISpot Dot plot Luminex ChIP-on-chip Multispot ELISA 

Abbreviations

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

RIA

Radioimmunoassay

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Ig

Immunoglobulin

HRP

Horseradish peroxidase

ALP

Alkaline phosphatase

IP

Immunoprecipitation

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

PAGE

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

ChIP

Chromatin immunoprecipitation

PVDF

Polyvinylidene fluoride

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

CML

Chronic myeloid leukemia

WT

Wildtype

ECL

Electrochemiluminescent

ELISpot

Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent spot assay

AEC

3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole

BCIP

5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate

NBT

Nitro blue tetrazolium chloride

IHC

Immunohistochemistry

ICC

Immunocytochemistry

CBA

Cytometric bead array

MFI

Mean fluorescence intensity

RBCs

Red blood cells

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hematology/OncologyQuest Diagnostics-Nichols InstituteSan Juan CapistranoUSA

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