Toll-like Receptors and NOD-Like Receptors: Domain Architecture and Cellular Signalling

  • Tanja Langefeld
  • Walid Mohamed
  • Rohit Ghai
  • Trinad Chakrabotty
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 653)


The innate immune system forms the first line of defense against pathogens. The Toll-like receptors and the Nod-like receptors are at the forefront of both extracellular and intracellular pathogen recognition. They recognize the most conserved structures of microbes and initiate the response to infection. In addition to the microbial stimuli, they are now also being implicated in the recognition of danger-associated stimuli, making them pivotal in disorders unrelated to microbial pathogenesis. Toll-like receptors and the Nod-like receptors share commonalities in structure, ligands and downstream signalling but they differ in their localization, and extent of influence on a wide variety of cellular processes including apoptosis. Here we discuss the common ligand recognition and signalling modules in both these classes of receptors.


Innate Immune System Spinal Muscular Atrophy Muramyl Dipeptide Leucine Rich Repeat Domain Blau Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanja Langefeld
    • 1
  • Walid Mohamed
    • 1
  • Rohit Ghai
    • 1
  • Trinad Chakrabotty
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Medical MicrobiologyGiessenGermany

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