Cardiac Changes in the Elderly



Cardiovascular function in elderly persons is ­significantly affected by the aging process itself and by those acquired diseases of the cardiovascular system that are more prevalent with age. Some of the cardiovascular disorders that are more prevalent in elderly persons include hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial enlargement, abnormal LVEF, atrial fibrillation, CHF (especially with a normal LVEF), coronary artery disease, ischemic and thromboembolic stroke, peripheral arterial disease, extracranial carotid arterial disease, aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, mitral regurgitation, mitral annular calcium, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and pacemaker rhythm. These physiologic and pathologic changes of the aging cardiovascular system must be taken into consideration during the clinical assessment and management of elderly patients who need to undergo surgical procedures and general anesthesia.


Cardiovascular aging Vascular stiffness Left ventricular ejection fraction Congestive heart failure Atrial fibrillation Coronary artery disease Stroke Peripheral arterial disease Aortic valvular disease Mitral valvular disease Conduction defects 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New York College of MedicineValhallaUSA

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