Much as the development of steel girders suddenly freed skyscrapers to reach beyond the 12-story limit of masonry buildings 6, achievements in four key processes have allowed the concept of 3D integrated circuits 2, proposed more than 20 years ago by visionaries (such as Jim Meindl in the United States and Mitsumasa Koyanagi in Japan), to actually begin to become realized. These factors are (1) low-temperature bonding, (2) layer-to-layer transfer and alignment, (3) electrical connectivity between layers, and (4) an effective release process. These are the cranes which will assemble our new electronic skyscrapers. As these emerged, the contemporary motivation to create such an unusual electronic structure remained unresolved. That argument finally appeared in a casual magazine article that certainly was not immediately recognized for the prescience it offered 5.
- 1.S. Amarasinghe, Challenges for Computer Architects: Breaking the Abstraction Barrier, NSF Future of Computer Architecture Research Panel, San Diego, CA, June 2003.Google Scholar
- 3.P. Emma, The End of Scaling? Revolutions in Technology and Microarchitecture as We Pass the 90 Nanometer Node, Proceedings of the 33rd International Symposium on Computer Architecture, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, pp. 128–128, June 2006.Google Scholar
- 4.P. Garrou, C. Bower, and P. Ramm, Handbook of 3D Integration, Wiley-VCH, 2008.Google Scholar
- 5.D. Matzke, Will Physical Scalability Sabotage Performance Gains? IEEE Computer, 30(9): 37–39, September 1977.Google Scholar
- 6.F. Mujica, History of the Skyscraper, Da Capo Press, New York, NY, 1977.Google Scholar
- 7.V. Srinivasan, D. Brooks, M. Gschwind, P. Bose, V. Zyuban, P. Strenski, and P. Emma, “Optimizing Pipelines for Performance and Power,” Proceedings of the 35th Annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture, pp. 333–344, November 2002.Google Scholar