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Hereditary Variance: Experimental Estimates

  • Arnel R. Hallauer
  • Marcelo J. Carena
  • J. B. Miranda Filho
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding book series (HBPB, volume 6)

Abstract

The mating designs described in Chapter 4 have been used extensively in maize to determine relative proportions of total variation that are governed by genetic and environmental forces and to characterize genetic variation due to additive and non-additive effects. Maize is amenable to study by the different mating designs because of the ease in obtaining sufficient quantities of seed for testing by cross- and self-fertilization. Because maize is a naturally cross-fertilized crop species, variability within maize populations was obvious to researchers. Until the late 1940s maize breeders and researchers emphasized the development of procedures for increasing effectiveness and efficiency of inbred line and hybrid development based on the principles given by East (1908), Shull (1908, 1909), and Jones (1918). Because of the variability within populations maize breeders, unlike animal breeders, did not concern themselves with attempting to characterize the types of genetic variability present and how this could influence effectiveness of selection of lines and their expression in hybrids until the publications of Comstock and Robinson (1948) and Mather (1949). Similarly, improvement of the populations was generally ignored. The papers by Jenkins (1940), Hull (1945), and Comstock et al. (1949) integrated possible effects of types of gene action on efficiency of selection and stimulated interest in maize populations and their improvement by breeders.

Keywords

Epistatic Effect Additive Genetic Variance Recurrent Selection Mating Design Indirect Selection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arnel R. Hallauer
    • 1
  • Marcelo J. Carena
    • 2
  • J. B. Miranda Filho
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant Sciences #7670North Dakota State UniversityFargoUSA
  3. 3.University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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