Retinal Remodeling and Visual Prosthetics

Chapter

Abstract

Retinal degenerative disease induces a cascade of events that ultimately result in phased revision of neuronal populations and circuitry of the retina. These changes reveal plasticity in the retina that mimics that seen during development and in instances of neural deafferentation in other central nervous system (CNS) systems, involving neuronal as well as glial cell populations. These retinal remodeling changes occur across the spectrum of retinal degenerative disease and are observed in defects of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), rhodopsin packaging and transport defects as well as other non-retinitis pigmentosa (RP) related diseases with the final result being fundamental revision of neuronal populations and circuitry. These revisions impact potential biological and bionic rescues of visual function and must be overcome before vision restoration strategies can be viable.

Keywords

Migration Tyrosine Retina Glaucoma Blindness 

Abbreviations

AC

Amacrine cell

AMD

Age-related macular degeneration

BC

Bipolar cell

CMP

Computational molecular phenotyping

CNS

Central nervous system

IPL

Inner plexiform layer

RP

Retinitis pigmentosa

RPE

Retinal pigment epithelium

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

Notes

Acknowledgments

Supported in part by an Unrestricted Grant from Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc., New York, NY, to the Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Utah. Dr. Bryan William Jones is a recipient of a Research to Prevent Blindness Career Development Award (BWJ). Edward N. & Della L. Thome Memorial Foundation, Bank of America, N.A. Trustee, (BWJ) NEI R01 EY02576, R01 EY015128, P01 EY014800 (REM); support from the Cal and JeNeal Hatch Presidential Endowed Chair (REM).

Competing Interests

Robert E. Marc is a principal of Signature Immunologics. All other authors declare no other competing interests.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Moran Eye CenterUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

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