Multilevel Item Response Theory Models

  • Jean-Paul Fox
Part of the Statistics for Social and Behavioral Sciences book series (SSBS)


The item response data structure is hierarchical since item responses are nested within respondents. Often respondents are also grouped into larger units and variables are available that characterize the respondents and the higher-level units. An item response modeling framework is discussed that includes a multilevel population model for the respondents and takes such a hierarchical data structure into account. An important application area is in education, where response observations are grouped in students and students grouped in schools. Several school e_ectiveness research studies are discussed. The hierarchical item response model is extended in several directions to handle latent explanatory variables, model latent individual growth, and identify clusters of respondents.


Markov Chain Monte Carlo Item Response Multilevel Model Item Parameter Deviance Information Criterion 
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Copyright information

© Springer New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Paul Fox
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis Faculty of Behavioral SciencesUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

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