Collective Passion in Entrepreneurial Teams

  • Mateja Drnovsek
  • Melissa S. Cardon
  • Charles Y. Murnieks
Part of the International Studies in Entrepreneurship book series (ISEN, volume 24)

Affective processes of individuals and teams at work are increasingly becoming acknowledged as important drivers of business decision-making processes and organizational behaviors. In particular, there has been an increasing interest in the notion of passion and its role in entrepreneurship. Business practitioners reckon that to stand even a chance of winning in a cutthroat environment dominated by larger, richer competitors, an entrepreneur needs to have “passion” – the “fire of desire” that enables an entrepreneur to surmount even the most difficult obstacles.


Team Member Emotional Intelligence Relationship Conflict Affective Process Cognitive Conflict 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aldrich HA, Martinez MA (2001) Many are called, but few are chosen: An evolutionary perspective for the study of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 25: 41–56Google Scholar
  2. Amason AC, Schweiger DM (1994) Resolving the paradox of conflict, strategic decision making and organizational performance. International Journal of Conflict Management 5: 239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amason AC (1996) Distinguishing the effects of functional and dysfunctional conflict on strategic decision making: Resolving a paradox for top management teams. Academy of Management Journal 39: 123–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amason AC, Shrader RC, Tompson GH (2006) Newness and novelty: Relating top management team composition to new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing 21: 125–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron RA (2007) Behavioral and cognitive factors in entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurs as the active element in new venture creation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal 1: 167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron RA (2008) The role of affect in the entrepreneurial process. Academy of Management Review 33:328–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrett LF, Mesquita B, Ochsner KN, Gross JJ (2007) The experience of emotion. Annual Review of Psychology 58: 373–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrick M, Stewart G, Neubert MJ, Mount M (1998) Relating member ability and personality to work-team processes and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology 83: 377–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barsade SG, Gibson DE (2007) Why does affect matter in organizations? Academy of Management Perspectives 21: 36–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barsade SG, Ward AJ, Turner JDF, Sonnenfeld JA (2000) To your heart's content: A model of affective diversity in top management teams. Administrative Science Quarterly 45: 802–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baum JR, Locke EA (2004) The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and motivation to new venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology 89: 587–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baum JR, Locke EA, Smith KG (2001) A multidimensional model of venture growth. Academy of Management Journal 44: 292–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beal DJ, Cohen R, Burke MJ, McLendon CL (2003) Cohesion and performance in groups: A meta-analytic clarification of construct relation. Journal of Applied Psychology 88: 989–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berscheid E (1985) Interpersonal attraction. In: Lindzey G, Aronson E (eds) Handbook of Social Psychology. Random House, New York, pp. 413–484Google Scholar
  15. Bierly PE, Kessler EH, Christensen EW (2000) Organizational learning, knowledge, and wisdom. Journal of Organizational Change Management 13: 595–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bird BJ (1989) Entrepreneurial Behavior. Scott Foresman and Co, Glenview, ILGoogle Scholar
  17. Birley S, Stockley S, 2000 Entrepreneurial teams and venture growth. In: Sexton DL, Landstrom H (eds) The Blackwell Handbook of Entrepreneurship. Blackwell Publishers, Malden, MA. pagesGoogle Scholar
  18. Bishop JW, Scott KD (1996) Multiple foci of commitment in a team environment. Academy of Management Proceedings, pp. 269–273.Google Scholar
  19. Boxx WR, Odom RY, Dunn MG (1991) Organizational values and value congruency and their impact on satisfaction, commitment and cohesion: An empirical examination within the public sector. Public Personnel Management 20: 195–205Google Scholar
  20. Branzei O, Zietsma C (2003) Entrepreneurial love: The enabling functions of positive illusions in venturing. Paper Presented at the Babson-Kauffman Entrepreneurial Research Conference. Babson College, Wellesley, MA.Google Scholar
  21. Brown RB (2003) Emotions and behavior: Exercises in emotional intelligence. Journal of Management Education 27: 122–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brännback M, Carsrud A, Elfving J, Krueger NF (2006) Sex, [drugs], and entrepreneurial passion?: An exploratory study. Paper Presented at the Babson-Kauffman Entrepreneurial Research Conference. Bloomington, IN.Google Scholar
  23. Burke PJ (1991) Identity processes and social stress. American Sociological Review 56: 836–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Byrne D (1971) The Attraction Paradigm. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Cacioppo JT, Gardner WL, Berntson GG (1999) The affect system has parallel and integrative processing components: Form follows function. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76: 839–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cardon MS, Wincent J, Singh J, Drnovsek M (2005) Entrepreneurial passion: The nature of emotions in entrepreneurship. In: Weaver KM (ed), Proceedings of the Sixty-fifth Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management CD, ISSN 1543–8643.Google Scholar
  27. Cardon MS, Wincent J, Singh J, Drnovsek M (2008) The different faces of entrepreneurial affect: why entrepreneurial emotion and passion are distinct. Paper Presented at 2008 Academy of Management Conference, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  28. Cardon MS, Wincent J, Singh J, Drnovsek M (2009) The nature and experience of entrepreneurial passion. Academy of Management Review.Google Scholar
  29. Cast AD (2004) Well-being and the transition to parenthood: An identity theory approach. Sociological Perspectives, 47(1): 55–78.Google Scholar
  30. Chowdhury S (2005) Demographic diversity for building an effective entrepreneurial team: Is it important? Journal of Business Venturing 20: 727–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Connor JJ, Rueter MA (2006) Parent-child relationships as systems of support or risk for adolescent suicidality. Journal of Family Psychology 20: 143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cooper AC, Dunkelberg WC, Woo CY (1988) Entrepreneurs’ perceived chances for success. Journal of Business Venturing 3: 97–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cooper AC, Bruno AV (1977) Success among high-technology firms. Business Horizons 20: 16–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Damasio AR (2003) Fundamental feelings. Nature 413(6858): 781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Duffy MK, Shaw JD (2000) The Salieri syndrome. Small Group Research 31: 3–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eagle NN (2005) Machine Perception and Learning of Complex Social Systems. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  37. Eisenberg J (2007) Group Cohesiveness, In: Baumeister RF, Vohs KD (eds), Encyclopedia of Social Psychology, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 386–388Google Scholar
  38. Ensley MD, Pearson AW (2005) An exploratory comparison of the behavioral dynamics of top management teams in family and nonfamily new ventures: Cohesion, conflict, potency and consensus. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 29: 267–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ensley MD, Pearson AW, Amason AC (2000) Understanding the dynamics of new venture top management teams: Cohesion, conflict and new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing 17: 365–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Estrada CA, Isen AM, Young MJ (1997) Positive affect facilitates integration of information and decreases anchoring in reasoning among physicians. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 72: 117–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Foo M, Uy MA, Baron RA (2008) How do feelings influence effort? An empirical study on entrepreneurs’ affect and venture effort. Paper Presented at 2008 Academy of Management Conference, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  42. Gartner WB, Starr JA, Bhat S (1999) Predicting new venture survival: An analysis of “Anatomy of a Startup” cases from Inc. magazine. Journal of Business Venturing 14: 215–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. George JM (1995) Leader positive mood and group performance: The case of customer service. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 25: 778–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Haveman HA, Khaire MV (2004) Survival beyond succession? The contingent impact of founder succession on organizational failure. Journal of Business Venturing 19: 437–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Isen AM (2000). Positive affect and decision making. In: Lewis M, Haviland-Jones J (eds) Handbook of Emotions. Guilford Press, New York, pp. 417–435Google Scholar
  46. Isen AM, Labroo AA (2003) Some ways in which positive affect facilitates decision making and judgment. In: Schneider SL, Shanteau JR (eds) Emerging Perspectives on Decision Research. Cambridge press, New York, pp. 365–393Google Scholar
  47. Isen AM, Means B (1993) The influence of positive affect on decision-making strategy. Social Cognition 2: 18–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Janis IL (1982) Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes. Houghton-Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  49. Jehn KA (1995) A multi-method examination of the benefits and determinants of intragroup conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly 40: 256–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jehn KA, Bendersky C (2003) Intragroup conflict in organizations: A contingency perspective on the conflict-outcome relationship. In: Staw B, Kramer R (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior. Elsevier, New York, pp. 189–244Google Scholar
  51. Jehn KA, Northcraft GB, Neale MA (1999) Why differences make a difference: A field study of diversity, conflict, and performance in workgroups. Administrative Science Quarterly 44: 741–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jordan PJ, Lawrence SA, Troth AC (2006) The impact of negative mood on team performance. Journal of Management and Organization 12: 131–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jordan PJ, Troth AC (2004) Managing emotions during team problem solving: Emotional intelligence and conflict resolution. Human Performance 17: 195–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kamm JB, Shuman JC, Seeger JA, Nurick AJ (1990) Entrepreneurial teams in new venture creation: A research agenda. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 14: 7–17Google Scholar
  55. Kelly JR, Barsade SG (2001) Mood and emotions in small groups and work teams. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 86(1): 99–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lambie JA, Marcel AJ (2002) Consciousness and the varieties of emotion experience: A theoretical framework. Psychological Review 1092: 219–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lankau MJ, Ward A, Amason A, Ng T, Sonnenfeld JA, Agle BR (2007) Examining the impact of organizational value dissimilarity in top management teams. Journal of Managerial Issues 1: 11–34Google Scholar
  58. Lechler T (2001) Social interaction: A determinant of entrepreneurial team venture success. Small Business Economics 16: 263–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. LePine JA, Piccolo RF, Jackson CL, Mathieu JE, Saul JR (2008) A meta-analysis of teamwork processes: Tests of a multidimensional model and relationships with team effectiveness criteria. Personnel Psychology 61: 273–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lerner JS, Keltner D (2001) Fear, anger, and risk. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 81: 146–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lott AJ, Lott BE (1974) The role of reward in the formation of positive interpersonal attitudes. In: Huston TL (ed) Foundation of Interpersonal Attraction. Academic Press, New York, pp. 171–192Google Scholar
  62. Lyubomirsky S, King L, Deiner E (2005) The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin 131: 803–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mayer J, Roberts R, Barsade SG (2008) Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology 59: 507–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McMullen JS, Shepherd DA (2006) Entrepreneurial action and the role of uncertainty in the theory of the entrepreneur. Academy of Management Review 31: 132–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mohrman SA, Cohen SG, Mohrman A Jr. (1995) Designing Team Based Organizations: New Forms for Knowledge Work. Jossey Bass, San Francisco CAGoogle Scholar
  66. Murnieks C, Mosakowski E (2006) Entrepreneurial passion: An identity theory perspective. Paper Presented at the 2006 Academy of Management Conference. Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  67. O’Reilly CA, Snyder R, Boothe J (1993) Effects of executive team demography on organizational change. In: Huber G, Glick W (eds) Organizational Change and Redesign. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 147–175Google Scholar
  68. Odiorne J (1991) Competence versus passion. Training and Development 45: 61–65Google Scholar
  69. Parkinson B (1996) Emotions are social. British Journal of Psychology 87: 663–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pasanen M, Laukkanen T (2006) Team-managed growing SMEs: A distinct species? Management Research News 29: 684–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pelled LH (1996) Demographic diversity, conflict, and work group outcomes: An intervening process theory. Organization Science 7: 615–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pelled LH, Eisenhardt KM, Xin KR (1999) Exploring the black box: An analysis of work group diversity, conflict and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly 44: 1–28Google Scholar
  73. Pham MT (2004) The logic of feeling. Journal of Consumer Psychology 14: 360–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rafaeli A, Sutton RI (1990) Busy stores and demanding customers: How do they affect the display of positive emotion? Academy of Management Journal 33: 623–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rip B, Fortin S, Vallerand RJ (2006) The relationship between passion and injury in dance students. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science 10: 14–20Google Scholar
  76. Rousseau FL, Vallerand RJ (2003) The role of passion in the subjective well-being of the elderly. Revue Quebecoise de Psychologie 24: 197–211Google Scholar
  77. Russell JA (2003) Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review 110: 145–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Salovey P, Mayer JD (1990) Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality 9: 185–211Google Scholar
  79. Schwarz N, Clore GL (2007) Feelings and phenomenal experiences. In: Higgins ET, Kruglanski A (eds) Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles. Guildord Press, New York, pp. 385–407Google Scholar
  80. Séguin-Lévesque C, Laliberté M-L, Pelletier LG, Blanchard C, Vallerand RJ (2003) Harmonious and obsessive passion for the internet: Their associations with couple’s relationships. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 33: 197–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Seo M, Barrett LF, Bartunek JM (2004) The role of affective experience in work motivation. Academy of Management Review 29: 423–440Google Scholar
  82. Shane S, Locke EA, Collins CJ (2003) Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Management Review 13: 257–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shepherd DA (2003) Learning from business failure: Propositions of grief recovery for the self-employed. Academy of Management Review 28: 318–329Google Scholar
  84. Shepherd DA (2004). Educating entrepreneurship students about emotion and learning from failure. Academy of Management Learning and Education 3: 274–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shepherd DA (2009). Grief recovery from the loss of a family business: A multi- and meso-level theory. Journal of Business Venturing 24: 81–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Simons TL, Peterson RS (2000) Task conflict and relationship conflict in top management teams: The pivotal role of intragroup trust. Journal of Applied Psychology 85: 102–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Smilor RW (1997) Entrepreneurship: Reflections on a subversive activity. Journal of Business Venturing 12: 341–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stryker S, Burke PJ (2000) The past, present, and future of an identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly 63: 284–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stryker S, Serpe RT (1982) Commitment, identity salience and role behavior: Theory and research example. In: Ickes W, Knowles ES (eds) Personality, Roles and Social Behavior. Springer Verlag, New York, pp. 199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stryker S (1989) Further developments in identity theory: Singularity versus multiplicity of self. In Berger J, Zelditch M, Anderson B (eds) Sociological Theories in Progress. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  91. Stryker S (2004) Integrating emotion into identity theory. In: Turner JH (ed) Theory and Research on Human Emotions, Elsevier Ltd, New York, pp. 1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Timmons JA (1999) New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century. McGraw Hill, IrwinGoogle Scholar
  93. Ucbasaran D, Lockett A, Wright M, Westhead P (2003) Entrepreneurial founder teams factors associated with team member entry and exit. Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice 28: 107–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Utsch A, Rauch A (2000) Innovativeness and initiative as mediators between achievement orientation and venture performance. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology 91: 45–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Vallerand RJ (2008) On the psychology of passion: In search of what makes people’s lives most worth living. Canadian Psychology 49:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vallerand RJ, Blanchard CM, Mageau GA, Koestner R, Ratelle CF, Leonard M (2003) Les passions de l’ame: On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85: 756–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Walter F, Bruch H (2008) The positive group affect spiral: A dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups. Journal of Organizational Behavior 29: 239–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Watson D, Clark LA (1984) Negative Affectivity: The disposition to experience negative emotional states. Psychological Bulletin 96: 465–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Watson WE, Ponthieu LD, Critelli JW (1995) Team interpersonal process effectiveness in venture partnerships and its connection to perceived success. Journal of Business Venturing, 10(5): 393–411Google Scholar
  100. Westhead P, Ucbasaran D, Wright M (2005) Experience and cognition: Do novice, serial and portfolio entrepreneurs differ? International Small Business Journal 23: 72–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vyakarnam S, Handelberg J (2005) Four themes of the impact of management teams on organizational performance: Implications for future research of entrepreneurial teams. International Small Business Journal 23: 236–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mateja Drnovsek
    • 1
  • Melissa S. Cardon
    • 2
  • Charles Y. Murnieks
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of EconomicsUniversity of LjubljanaSlovenia
  2. 2.Lubin School of Business, Pace UniversityPleasantvilleUSA
  3. 3.US Air Force AcademyUSA

Personalised recommendations