Advertisement

Clinical Hypnosis in Children

Chapter

Abstract

As with adults, pain in children is a multidimensional experience which varies significantly depending on previous experience with pain; personality, expectations, and cognitive maturation. Recent investigations reveal that pain in children correlates directly with more than just the degree of actual tissue damage (Goodman and McGrath 1991). Consequently, interventions that treat only the initial cause of the pain will not be completely successful. It is essential to address both psychological and physiological aspects when developing a pain management course for children.

Keywords

Hypnotic phases Idiomotor activities Magic Glove Hypnotic techniques Certification in hypnosis 

References

  1. American Medical Association. (1958). Council on mental health: Medical use of hypnosis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 9, 86–189.Google Scholar
  2. Benedetti, F. (2002). How the doctor’s words affect the patient’s brain. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 25, 369–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Braid, J. (1844). Magic, Mesmerism, Hypnotism; historically and physiologically considered. The Medical Times, a Journal of the English and Foreign Medicine, 11, 203–224.Google Scholar
  4. Braid, J. (1846). The power of the mind over the body: An experimental inquiry into the nature and cause of the phenomena. The Medical Times, 14(350), 214–216.Google Scholar
  5. Broome, M. E., Bates, T. A., Lillis, P. P., & McGahee, T. W. (1990). Children’s medical fears, coping behaviors, and pain perceptions during a lumbar puncture. Oncology Nursing Forum, 17, 361–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Butler, L. D., Symons, B. K., Henderson, S. L., Shortliffe, L. D., & Spiegel, D. (2005). Hypnosis reduces distress and duration of an invasive medical procedure for children. Clinical Trials. Journal article. Randomized controlled trial. Research support, Non-U.S. Gov’t. Pediatrics, 115, e77–e85.Google Scholar
  7. Chaves, J. F., & Dworkin, S. F. (1997). Hypnotic control of pain: Historical perspectives and future prospects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45(4), 356–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, L. M. (2007). Imaging of pain. International Anesthesiology Clinics, 44, 39–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crawford, H. J., Horton, J. E., Harrington, G. S., Hirsch Downs, T., Fox, K., Daugherty, S., & Downs, III, H. (2000). Attention and dis-attention (hypnotic analgesia) to noxious somatosensory TENS stimuli: fMRI differences in low and highly hypnotizable individuals. Poster presented at sixth annual meeting of the ­organization for Human Brain Mapping, San Antonio, TX.Google Scholar
  10. Davis, K. D., Taylor, S. J., Crawley, A. P., Wood, M. L., & Mikulis, D. J. (1997). Functional MRI of pain and attention related activations in the human cingulate cortex. Neurophysiology, 77, 3370–3380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Davis, K. D., Hutchison, W. D., Lozano, A. M., Tasker, R. R., & Dostrovsky, J. O. (2000). Human anterior cingulate cortex neurons modulated by attention demanding tasks. Journal of Neurophysiology, 83, 3575–3577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. De Pascalis, V. F. S., Chiaradia, C., & Carotenuto, E. (2002). The contribution of suggestibility and expectation to placebo analgesia phenomenon in an experimental setting. Pain, 3, 393–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DePascalis, V., Marucci, F. S., Penna, P. M., & Pessa, E. (1987). Hemispheric activity of 40 Hz EEG during recall of emotional events: Differences between low and high hypnotizables. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 5, 167–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Di Blasi, Z., Harkness, E., Ernst, E., Georgiou, A., & Kleijnen, J. (2001). Influence of context effects on health outcomes: A systematic review. Lancet, 357, 757–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Diamond, M. (1984). It takes two to tango: The neglected importance of the hypnotic relationship. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 26, 1–13.Google Scholar
  16. Dinges, D. F., Whitehouse, W. G., Orne, E. C., Bloom, P. B., Carlin, M. M., Bauer, N. K., Gillen, K. A., Shapiro, B. S., Ohene-Frempong, K., Dampier, C., & Orne, M. T. (1997). Self-hypnosis training as an adjunctive treatment in the management of pain associated with sickle cell disease. Clinical trial. Comparative study. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45, 417–432.Google Scholar
  17. Donaldson, I. M. L. (2005). Mesmer’s 1780 proposal for a controlled trial to test his method of treatment using ‘Animal Magnetism’. The James Lind Library (www.Jameslindlibrary.org). Accessed 10 Oct 2009.
  18. Evans, F. J. (2001). Hypnosis in chronic pain management, in international handbook of clinical hypnosis (eds G. D. Burrows, R. O. Stanley and P. B. Bloom), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.Evans, F. J. 17, 247–260.Google Scholar
  19. Faymonville, M. E., Mambourg, P. H., Joris, J., et al. (1997). Psychological approaches during conscious sedation: Hypnosis versus stress reducing strategies: A prospective randomized study. Pain, 73, 361–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gardner, G. G. (1981). Teaching self-hypnosis to children. International Jornal of Clinical Hypnosis, 29, 300–312.Google Scholar
  21. Genuis, M. L. (1995). The use of hypnosis in helping cancer patients control anxiety, pain, and emesis: A review of recent empirical studies. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 37, 316–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goodman, J. E., & McGrath, P. J. (1991). The epidemiology of pain in children and adolescents: A review. Pain, 46, 247–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hilgard, E. R. (1973). The domain of hypnosis with some comments on alternative paradigms. The American Psychologist, 28, 972–982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hilgard, E. R., & Hilgard, J. R. (1997). Hypnosis in the relief of pain. New York: Brunner/Mazel. Rev sub edition.Google Scholar
  25. Holroyd, J. (1996). Hypnosis treatment of clinical pain: Understanding why hypnosis is useful. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 44, 33–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hsieh, J. C., Stone-Elander, S., & Ingvar, M. (1999). Anticipatory coping of pain expressed in the human anterior cingulate cortex: A positron emission tomography study. Neuroscience Letters, 262, 61–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Humphreys, P., & Gevirtz, R. N. (2000). Treatment of recurrent abdominal pain: Components analysis of four treatment protocols. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 31, 47–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huth, M. M., Broome, M. E., & Good, M. (2004). Imagery reduces children’s postoperative pain. Pain, 110, 439–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Integration of behavioral and relaxation approaches into the treatment of chronic pain and insomnia. (1996). NIH technology assessment panel on integration of behavioral and relaxation approaches into the treatment of chronic pain and insomnia. Journal of the American Medical Association, 276, 313–318.Google Scholar
  30. Iserson, K. V. (1998). Hypnosis for pediatric fracture reduction. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 17, 53–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jacobsen, E. (1974). Progressive Relaxation: A Physio­logical & Clinical Investigation of Muscular States & Their Significance in Psychology & Medical Practice, Chicago University Press, Chicago Midway Reprint.Google Scholar
  32. Kihlstorm, J. F. (1985). Hypnosis. Annual Review of Physiology, 47, 119–127.Google Scholar
  33. Kirsch, I. (1999). Hypnosis and placebos: Response expectancy as a mediator of suggestion effects. Anales de Psicología, 15, 99–110.Google Scholar
  34. Kirsch, I. (2001). The response set theory of hypnosis: Expectancy and physiology. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 44, 69–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lambert, S. A. (1996). The effects of hypnosis/guided imagery on the postoperative course of children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 17, 307–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rapport des commissaires chargés par le Roi, de l’examen du magnétisme animale. (1784). Imprimé par ordre du Roi. Paris: L’Imprimerie Royale.Google Scholar
  37. Martin-Herz, S. P., Thurber, C. A., & Patterson, D. R. (1986). Psychological principles of burn wound pain in children. II: treatment applications. Journal article. Research support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S. Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation 21, 458–472.Google Scholar
  38. McConkey, K. M. (1986). Opinions about hypnosis and self hypnosis before and hypnotic testing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 34, 311–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mesmer, F. A. (1779). Mémoire sur la découverte du magnétisme animal. Par M. Mesmer, Docteur en Médecine de la Faculté de Vienne. Geneva (and Paris): Didot le Jeune.Google Scholar
  40. Olness, K., & Gardner, G. G. (1978). Some guidelines for uses of hypnotherapy in pediatrics. Pediatrics, 62, 228–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Olness K., & Kohen, D. (1996) Correlates of child hood hypnotic responsiveness in Hypnosis and hypnotherapy with children, 3rd ed. New York, NY: Guilford. 4(33–52).Google Scholar
  42. Olness, K., MacDonald, J. T., & Uden, D. L. (1987). Comparison of self-hypnosis and propranolol in the treatment of juvenile classic migraine. Pediatrics, 79, 593–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Porro, C. A., Baraldi, P., & Pagnoni, G. (2002). Does anticipation of pain affect cortical nociceptive systems? The Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 3206–3214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Price, D. D. (2002). Central neural mechanisms that interrelate sensory and affective dimensions of pain. Molecular Interventions, 2, 392–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Quist, J. F., Barr, C. L., Schachar, R., Roberts, W., & Malone, M. (2003). Receptor gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 8, 98–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rainville, P., & Price, D. D. (2003). Hypnosis phenomenology and the neurobiology of consciousness. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 51, 105–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rainville, P., Duncan, G. H., Price, D. D., Carrier, B., & Bushnell, M. C. (1997). Pain affect encoded in human anterior cingulate but not somatosensory cortex. Science, 277(3528), 968–971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rainville, P., Hofbauer, R. K., Paus, T., Duncan, G. H., Bushnell, M. C., & Price, D. D. (1999). Cerebral mechanisms of hypnotic induction and suggestion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 11, 110–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rainville, P., Hofbauer, R. K., Bushnell, M. C., Duncan, G. H., & Price, D. D. (2000). Hypnosis modulates the activity in cerebral structures involved in arousal and attention. Poster presented at Cognitive Neuroscience Society, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  50. Rainville, P., Hofbauer, R. K., Bushnell, M. C., Duncan, G. H., & Price, D. D. (2002). Hypnosis modulates activity in brain structures involved in the regulation of consciousness. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 887–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ray, W. J., & Pascalis, V. F. S. (2003). Temporal aspects of hypnotic processes. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 51, 147–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Raz, A., & Shapiro, T. (2003). Hypnosis and neuroscience: A crosstalk between clinical and cognitive research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 85–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Raz, A., Shapiro, T., & Fan, J. (2002). Hypnotic suggestion and the modulation of stroop interference. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 1155–1161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Raz, A., Fan, J., & Posner, M. I. (2005). Hypnotic suggestion reduces conflict in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 102, 9978–9983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rhue et al. (1993) Executive Committee of the American Psychological Association Division of Psychological Hypnosis. The Bulletin of Division 30. (http://­psychologicalhypnosis.com/info/the-official-division-30-­definition-and-description-of-hypnosis) Accessed 21 March 2011
  56. Richter, I. L., McGrath, P. J., & Humphreys, P. J. (1986). Cognitive and relaxation treatment of paediatric migraine. Pain, 25, 195–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Spiegel, D., & Moore, R. (1997). Imagery and hypnosis in the treatment of cancer patients. Oncology, 1, 1179–1195.Google Scholar
  58. Syrjala, K. L., & Abrams, J. R. (1996). Hypnosis and imagery in the treatment of pain. In: Gatchel RJ, Turk DC (eds.) Psychological Approaches to Pain Management: A Practitioners’ Handbook. New York: Guilford Publications 231–258.Google Scholar
  59. Swanson, J. M., Flodman, P., Kennedy, J., Spence, M. A., Moyzis, R., Schuck, S., Murias, M., Moriarity, J., Barr, C., Smith, M., & Posner, M. (2000). Dopamine, genes and ADHD. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 21–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Uman, L. S., Chambers, C. T., McGrath, P. J., & Kisely, S. (2007). Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Collaboration.Google Scholar
  61. Vandenberg, B. (2002). Hypnotic responsivity from a developmental perspective; insight from young children. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 50, 229–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zeig, J., & Geary, B. (2001). Ericksonian approaches to pain management in The Handbook of Ericksonian psychotherapy, Milton H. Erickson Foundation Press. 252–285.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations