• Freda Patterson
  • Robert A. Schnoll
  • Caryn Lerman


Tobacco use is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. Cessation rates in developed countries such as the United States have stalled, while smoking uptake rates in the developing nations of the world, such as China and India, are on the rise. Given the highly addictive nature of nicotine, along with the multifaceted etiology of this addiction that includes biological and behavioral determinants, identifying effective treatments remains a challenge to smoking cessation practitioners. Current Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for nicotine dependence include nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs), bupropion, and varenicline. Although these first-line smoking cessation therapies significantly improve a smoker’s likelihood of quitting, a majority of smokers fail to maintain long-term abstinence using these treatments. To curtail the growing global health epidemic of nicotine dependence, continued work to identify biological and behavioral variables that predict treatment response as well as the identification and appropriate dissemination of new treatments is needed. This two-pronged approach could potentially allow clinicians to move toward a more personalized, cost-effective model for the prescription of smoking cessation therapies that could help more treatment-seeing smokers achieve long-term abstinence.


Dependence Tobacco Nicotine Addiction Public policy Pharmacogenetics 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Freda Patterson
    • 1
  • Robert A. Schnoll
    • 1
  • Caryn Lerman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research CenterUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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