Semiconductor Lasers

Chapter
Part of the Optical Networks book series (OPNW)

In this chapter we discuss the basic principles of operation of semiconductor lasers. These devices are by far the most common optical source in fiber optic communication. Properties such as high-speed modulation capability, high efficiency, wavelengths in the infrared communication band, small size, and high reliability make these devices an indispensable part of fiber optic links. This chapter starts with the theory of light amplifiers and oscillators. Next we discuss optical amplification in semiconductors, which is the basis of semiconductor lasers. We will also introduce the rate equations, which are an essential tool in understanding the behavior of semiconductor lasers. Next we will study various properties of these lasers, both in frequency and in time domains. Finally, we will review some of the practical semiconductor devices in use.

Keywords

SiO2 Microwave Recombination GaAs Sine 

References

  1. [1]
    S. Boutami et al., “Vertical Fabry-Perot cavity based on single-layer photonic crystal mirrors,” Optics Express, Vol. 15, pp.12443–12449, 2007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    T. Steinmetz et al., “Stable fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, Article Number 111110, 2006Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Y. D. Jeong et al., “Tunable single-mode Fabry-Perot laser diode using a built-in external cavity and its modulation characteristics,” Optics Letters, Vol. 31, pp. 2586–2588, 2006CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    B. G. Streetman, Solid State Electronic Devices , Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1990Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    W. E. Lamb, “Theory of optical maser”, Physical Review A, Vol. 134, pp. 1429–1450, 1964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    M. Scully and W. E. Lamb, “Quantum theory of an optical maser,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 16, pp. 853–855, 1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    M. Scully and W. E. Lamb, “Quantum theory of an optical maser, 1. General theory,” Physical Review, Vol. 159, pp. 208–226, 1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    M. Scully and W. E. Lamb, “Quantum theory of an optical maser, 2. Spectral profile,” Physical Review, Vol. 166, pp. 246–249, 1968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    M. Johnsson et al., “Semiclassical limits to the linewidth of an atom laser,” Physical Review A, Vol. 75, Article Number 043618, 2007Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    A. Yariv, “Dynamic analysis of the semiconductor laser as a current-controlled oscillator in the optical phased-lock loop: applications,” Optics Letters, Vol. 30, pp. 2191–2193, 2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    S. Stenholm and W. E. Lamb, “Theory of a high intensity laser,” Physical Review, Vol. 181, pp. 618–635, 1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    M. Azadeh and L. W. Casperson, “Field solutions for bidirectional high-gain laser amplifiers and oscillators,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 83, pp. 2399–2407, 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    P. Szczepanski, ”Semiclassical theory of multimode operation of a distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 24, pp. 1248–1257, 1988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    L. W. Casperson, “Laser power calculations, sources of error,” Applied Optics, Vol. 19, pp. 422–434, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 41, pp. 762–766, 2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    C. Etrich, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham, and H. Zeghlache, “Dynamics of a two-mode semiconductor laser,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 28, pp. 811–821, 1992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits , John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    F. Habibullah and W. P. Huang, “A self-consistent analysis of semiconductor laser rate equations for system simulation purpose,” Optics Communications, Vol. 258, pp. 230–242, 2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics , 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    P. V. Mena et al., “A comprehensive circuit-level model of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 17, pp. 2612–2632, 1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    N. Bewtra, et al., “Modeling of quantum-well lasers with electro-opto-thermal interaction,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 1, pp. 331–340, 1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    A. Haug, “Theory of the temperature dependence of the threshold current of an InGaAsP laser,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 21, pp. 716–718, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    A. Haug, “On the temperature dependence of InGaAsP semiconductor lasers,” Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Solid State Physics, Vol. 194, pp. 195–198, 1996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    M. Montes et al., “Analysis of the characteristic temperatures of (Ga,In)(N,As)/GaAs laser diodes,” Journal of Applied Physics D-Applied Physics, Vol. 41, Article Number 155102, 2008Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    K. Lau and A. Yariv, “Ultra-high speed semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 21, pp. 121–138, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    C. Y. Tsai et al., “A small-signal analysis of the modulation response of high-speed quantum-well lasers: effects of spectral hole burning, carrier heating, and carrier diffusion-capture-escape,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 33, pp. 2084–2096, 1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    N. Dokhane and G. L. Lippi, “Improved direct modulation technique for faster switching of diode lasers,” IEE Proceedings Optoelectronics, Vol. 149, pp. 7–16, 2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, and T. Kimura, “Direct frequency modulation in AlGaAs semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics,” Vol. 18, pp. 582–595, 1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    S. Odermatt and B. Witzigmann, “A microscopic model for the static and dynamic lineshape of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 42, pp. 538–551, 2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    G. Agrawal, “Power spectrum of directly modulated single-mode semiconductor lasers: Chirp-induced fine structure,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 21, pp. 680–686, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    N. K. Dutta et al., “Frequency chirp under current modulation in InGaAsP injection lasers,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 56, pp. 2167–2169, 1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    P. J. Corvini and T. L. Koch, “Computer simulation of high-bit-rate optical fiber transmission using single-frequency lasers,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 5, pp. 1591–1595, 1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    T. L. Koch and R. A. Linke, “RA effect of nonlinear gain reduction on semiconductor laser wavelength chirping,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 48, pp. 613–615, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Y. Yoshida et al., “Analysis of characteristic temperature for InGaAsP BH lasers with p-n-p-n blocking layers using two-dimensional device simulator,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 34, pp. 1257–1262, 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    J. Jin, J. Shi, and D. Tian, “Study on high-temperature performances of 1.3-μm InGaAsP-InP strained multiquantum-well buried-heterostructure lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 17, pp. 276–278, 2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Y. Sakata et al., “All-selectively MOVPE 1.3-μm strained multi-quantum-well buried-heterostructure laser diodes,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 35, pp. 368–376, 1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, Distributed Feedback Laser Diodes and Optical Tunable Filters , John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2003Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    E. Garmine, “Sources, modulators, and detectors for fiber optic communication systems” in Fiber Optics Handbook , edited by Michael Bass, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    F. Koyama, “Recent advances of VCSEL photonics,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 24, pp. 4502–4513, 2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    K. Iga, “Surface-emitting laser-Its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron, Vol. 6, pp. 1201–1215, 2000CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Source Photonics, Inc.ChatsworthUSA

Personalised recommendations