Advertisement

Cybercrime

  • Graeme R. Newman
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

The word cybercrime, an invention of the late twentieth century, is popularly thought of as crime that occurs in cyberspace, a strange, virtual world populated by mysterious comic book-like characters who have magical powers, abilities to manipulate reality in ways that ordinary mortals cannot. Cyborgs (half-man half-machine) fight humans, transform themselves into strange creatures, and move effortlessly through time and space. Only superheroes of magnificent proportions can fight such crime. The practical result of this view is to imagine that cyber criminals are brilliantly talented hackers who can sneak into our homes via our personal computers and steal or vandalize our personal information. Like all myths, there is a little truth to this conception, but on the whole the reality of cybercrime is that it is not a new phenomenon, but simply traditional crime with a different face. In fact, crime constantly changes in response to evolving technologies; it is new to the extent that technologies are new. However, it is also “virtual” (as the prefix cyber suggests) to the extent that our everyday lives are virtual. As it turns out, the virtual nature of our everyday lives is considerable – and has been for thousands of years.

Keywords

Credit Card Bank Account Internet Service Provider Chat Room Child Pornography 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ahuja, V. (1997). Secure commerce on the Internet. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Akdeniz, Y., Walker, C., & Wall, D. (Eds.) (2000). The Internet, law and society. London: Longman Pearson.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, J., Forrest, S., Levi, M., Roy, M., & Sutton, M. (2005). Fraud and Technology crimes: Findings of the 2002/3 British Crime Survey and 2003 Offending, Crime and Justice Survey. Home Office Online report 34/05 Available at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs07/bcs25.pdf.
  4. Anderson, R. (2001). Security engineering: A guide to dependable distributed systems. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Arai, S. (April 25, 2008). Internet suicide phenomenon in Japan. Asiajin. http://asiajin.com/blog/2008/04/25/internet-suicide-phenomenon-in-japan/.
  6. Associated Press (August 12, 2005). Man convicted in massive database theft. MSNBC. Available at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8924987/.
  7. Associated Press (2008). Mom indicted in deadly MySpace hoax. CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/05/15/internet.suicide.ap/.
  8. Baker, D. (2008). Another review of the authentication summit. White Noise. Available at: http://whitenoiseinc.com/2007/04/30/another-review-of-the-authentication-summit.aspx.
  9. Baum, K. (2006). Identity theft, 2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  10. Baum, K. (2007). Identity theft, 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  11. BBC News (March 17, 2005). UK police foil massive bank theft. BBC News. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4356661.stm.
  12. Bednarski, G. M. (September, 2004). Enumerating and reducing the threat of transnational cyber extortion against small and medium size organizations. InformationWeek Available online at: http://www.informationweek.com/1005/report.htm.
  13. Bucci, S., & Steiner, S. (February 21, 2007). The growing problem of merchant database theft. Bankrate.com. Available at: http://www.bankrate.com/brm/news/pf/protect_identity_20070221_a1.asp
  14. Carr, J. (2004). Child abuse, child pornography and the Internet. London: NCH.Google Scholar
  15. Celent Communications (January 21, 2003). Taking a bite out of credit card fraud Available at: http://www.celent.com/PressReleases/20030121/CreditCardFraud.htm.
  16. Cere, R. (2003). Digital counter cultures and the nature of electronic social and political movements. In Y. Jewkes (ed.), Dot.cons: Crime, deviance and identity on the Internet Culmcott House, Uffculme, Devon: Willan.Google Scholar
  17. Cherner, R., & Weir, T. (2008). Kobe Bryant’s lawyers send cease and desist order to website. USA Today blog, available at: http://blogs.usatoday.com/gameon/2008/05/kobe-bryants-la.html.
  18. Clarke, R. V. (1997). (Ed.), Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies (2nd ed.). Guilderland, NY: Harrow and Heston.Google Scholar
  19. Clarke, R. V. (1999). Hot products. Understanding, anticipating and reducing the demand for stolen goods. (Police Research Series. Paper 98). London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  20. Clarke, R. V. (2009). 25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention. Center for Problem Oriented Policing. Available at: http://www.popcenter.org/25techniques/. Accessed January 23, 2009.
  21. Clarke, R. V., & Eck, J. E. (2000). Crime analysis for problem solvers in 60 small steps. (Step 16) Washington DC: COPS US Dep. of Justice and Center for Problem oriented Policing. Available at: http://popcenter.org/library/reading/pdfs/60Steps.pdf.Google Scholar
  22. Clarke, R. V., & Newman, G. R. (Eds.). (2005). Designing out crime from products and systems. Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 18. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  23. Clarke, R. V., & Newman, G. R. (2006). Outsmarting the terrorists. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.Google Scholar
  24. Clough, B., & Mungo, P. (1992). Approaching zero: Data crime and the computer underworld. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  25. Deflem, M., & Hudak B. (2008). Internet extortion and information security. In F. G. Shanty (Ed.), Organized crime: From trafficking to terrorism (pp. 289–292). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
  26. Denning, D. E., & Baugh, W. E., Jr. (2000). Hiding crimes in cyberspace. In D. Thomas & B. D. Loader (Eds.), Cybercrime: Law enforcement, security and surveillance in the information age (pp. 107–131). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Economist (May 27, 2004). The decline of the English burglary. Available at: http://www.economist.com/world/britain/displaystory.cfm?story_id=2709203&source=login_payBarrier. Accessed January 23, 2009.
  28. Ekblom, P. (2002). Future imperfect: Preparing for the crimes to come. Criminal Justice Matters, 46, 38–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Erikson, K. T. (1966). Wayward Puritans: A study in the sociology of deviance. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  30. Fritz, J. (1995). A proposal for mental health provisions in state anti-stalking law. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 23, 295–318.Google Scholar
  31. Furnell, S. (2002). Cybercrime: Vandalizing the information society. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  32. Gackenbach, J. (Ed.). (1998). Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal implications. New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  33. Grabosky, P., & Smith, R. (1998). Crime in the digital age. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  34. Grabosky, P., & Smith, R. G. (2001). Telecommunication fraud in the digital age: The convergence of technologies. In D. S. Wall (Ed.), Crime and the Internet (pp. 29–43). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Grabosky, P., & Smith R. (2001). Telecommunication in the digital age: The convergence of technologies. In D. S. Wall (Ed.). Crime and the Internet ( Chapter 3). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Grabosky, P, Smith, R. G., & Dempsey, G. (2001). Electronic theft: Unlawful acquisition in cyberspace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Grayson, R. (August 16, 2004). Society’s moral panic attacks – all grist for the media mill. Online opinion: Australia’s e-journal of social and political debate. Available at: http://www.onlineopinion.com.au/view.asp?article=2455.
  38. Greenspan, A. (2007). The age of turbulence: Adventures in a new world. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  39. Hall, J. (1935). Theft, law and society. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  40. Hollander, D. B. (2007). Money and the Roman Republic. Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  41. Hughes, D. (2001). The impact of the use of new communications and information technologies on trafficking in human beings for sexual exploitation: A study of the users. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe, Committee for Equality Between Women and Men.Google Scholar
  42. Hughes, D. (2004). The role of “marriage agencies” in the sexual exploitation and trafficking of women from the former Soviet Union. International Review of Victimology, 11(1), 49–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Javelin Strategy and Research. (2008). 2008 identity fraud survey report: Identity fraud continues to decline, but criminals more effective at using all channels. Pleasanton, CA [Author].Google Scholar
  44. Jenkins, P. (2001). Beyond tolerance: Child pornography on the Internet. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Kirsner, S. (May 29, 1998). Murder by Internet. Wired. 6.12. Available at: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/6.12/murder.html.
  46. Koumpis, C., Farrell, G., May, A., Mailley, J., Maguire, M., & Sdralia, V. (2007). To err is human, to design-out divine: Reducing human error as a cause of cyber security breaches. Loughborough, UK: Midlands Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice.Google Scholar
  47. Krone, T. (2004). A typology of online child pornography offending. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 279. Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  48. Lacey, M. (2008). Exploiting real fears with “virtual kidnappings”. New York Times, Mexico City Journal. April 29.Google Scholar
  49. Laycock, G. (2006). Implementing crime reduction measures: Conflicts and tensions. In J. Knutsson & R. V. Clarke (Eds.). Putting theory to work: Implementing situational prevention and problem-oriented policing (pp. 65–88). Crime Prevention Studies: Vol. 20. New York: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  50. Levi, M. (2008). Combating identity and other forms of payment fraud in the UK: An analytical history. In M. McNally & G. R. Newman (Eds.), Perspectives on Identity Theft (pp. 111–132). Crime Prevention Studies: Vol 23. New York: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  51. Levy, S. (1984). Hackers: Heroes of the computer revolution. New York: Bantam/Doubleday.Google Scholar
  52. Leyden, J. (March 28, 2002). Online gambling tops Internet card fraud league. The Register. Available at: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2002/03/28/online_gambling_tops_internet_card/.
  53. Leyden, J. (November, 2004). WTO rules against US gambling laws. The Register, 11. Available at: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/11/11/us_gambling_wto_rumble/.
  54. Leyden, J. (February 28, 2008). Phishers clean up at online casinos: Poker faced fraud. The Register. Available at: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/02/28/casino_phishing/.
  55. Lilley, P. (2002). Hacked, attacked and abused: Digital crime exposed. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  56. Logan, J. (January, 2008). Internet replacing streetwalking for Inland prostitution. The Press Enterprise. Available at: http://www.pe.com/localnews/sbcounty/stories/PE_News_Local_S_prostitution02.9893.html#.
  57. Lloyd, K. (2000). Wives for sale: The modern international mail-order bride industry. Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, 20(2), 341–368.Google Scholar
  58. Malatesta, J. (2007). Exploring the effects of the Internet environment on online sexual deviance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University at Albany, SUNY.Google Scholar
  59. McNally, M. M. (2008). Trial by circumstance: Is identity theft a modern-day moral panic? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University.Google Scholar
  60. McNally, M., & Newman, G. R. (Eds.) (2008). Perspectives on identity theft. Crime prevention studies: Vol 23. New York: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  61. Menn, J. (October 31, 2004). Online extortion: Internet crime on the rise. The Indian Express. Center. Available at Computer Crime Research: http://www.crime-research.org/news/31.10.2004/756/.
  62. Mitnick, K., & Simon, W. L. (2002). The art of deception: Controlling the human element of security. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  63. National Center for Victims of Crime (2004). Stalking. (Problem Oriented Guides for Police, No. 22.) Washington DC: Dept. of Justice, COPS and Center for Problem Oriented Policing.Google Scholar
  64. National Fraud Information Center (2005). Internet fraud statistics. Available at: http://www.fraud.org/internet/intstat.htm.
  65. Mullen, P., Pathe, M., & Purcell, R. (2001). Stalking: New constructions of human behavior. Australian and new Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. National White Collar Crime Center (2007), 2007 Internet crime report. Washington D.C. Internet Crime Complaint Center, US Bureau of Justice Assistance and FBI. Available at: http://www.ic3.gov/media/annualreport/2007_IC3Report.pdf.
  67. Newman, G. R. (2003). Check and card Fraud (Problem Oriented Guides for Police, No. 21). Washington DC: Dept. of Justice, COPS and Center for Problem Oriented Policing.Google Scholar
  68. Newman, G. R. (2004). Identity theft (Problem Oriented Guides for Police, No. 25). Washington DC: Dept. of Justice, COPS and Center for Problem Oriented Policing.Google Scholar
  69. Newman, G. R. (2006). The exploitation of trafficked women (Problem Oriented Guides for Police, No. 38). Washington DC: Dept. of Justice, COPS and Center for Problem Oriented Policing.Google Scholar
  70. Newman, G. R., & Clarke, R. V. (2003). Super highway robbery: Crime prevention in the ecommerce environment. Devon, UK: Willan.Google Scholar
  71. Newman, G. R., & Clarke, R. V. (2007). Understanding global terrorism. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Policing and Security. Turkish National Police.Google Scholar
  72. Newman, G. R., & McNally, M. (2007). Identity theft – A research review. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Available at: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/publications/id-theft/welcome.htm.Google Scholar
  73. Newman, G. R., & Marongiu, P. (2009). Beccaria: On crimes and punishments. Translation, annotations and introduction. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  74. Norton Symantec (2009). Available at: http://www.symantec.com/norton/security_response/secureemail.jsp. Accessed January 23, 2009.
  75. Paulson, A. (December 30, 2003). Internet bullying: With the click of a key, bullies are humiliating their peers. What are schools doing to tame this behavior? Christian Science Monitor. Available at: http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/1230/p11s01-legn.html.
  76. Pease, K. (2001). Crime futures and foresight: Challenging criminal behaviour in the information age. In D. Wall (Ed.), Crime and the Internet (pp. 18–28). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  77. Punternet (2009). Available at: http://www.punternet.com/, accessed January 23, 2009.
  78. Rege, A. (2008). Cybercrimes@Gambling_Sites.Com. Unpublished master’s thesis. Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.Google Scholar
  79. Reuters (June 16, 2007). US Internet defamation suit tests online anonymity. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idUSN1529267420070616?feedType=RSS&rpc=22.
  80. Rosen, J. (October 7, 2001). A watchful state. New York Times Magazine. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?re...35753C1A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print (9 of 11). Accessed June 26, 2008.
  81. Rosen, J. (2004). The naked crowd: Reclaiming security and freedom in an anxious age. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  82. Salkever, A. (August 22, 2000). Cyber-extortion: When data is held hostage. Business Week. Available at: http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/aug2000/nf20000822_308.htm.
  83. Scott, M. (2001). Robbery at automated teller machines. Problem Oriented Guides for Police, No. 8. Washington DC: Dept. of Justice, COPS and Center for Problem Oriented Policing.Google Scholar
  84. Sharp, K., & Earle, S. (2003). Cyberpunters and cyberwhores: Prostitution on the Internet. In Y. Jewkes (Ed.), Dot.cons: Crime, deviance and identity on the Internet (pp. 36–52). Cullompton, Devon, UK: Willan.Google Scholar
  85. Spam Filter Learning Center (2009). Spam statistics 2006. Available at: http://spam-filter-review.toptenreviews.com/spam-statistics.html. Accessed January 23, 2009.
  86. Steinen, R. (2006). Lessons learned from biggest bank heist in history. Available at: http://www.cioupdate.com//article.php/3600126. April 19.
  87. Sullivan, J. (August 15, 2000). Two arrested in Bloomberg extortion case. New York Times. Available at: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9400EEDB113FF936A2575BC0A9669C8B63&scp=1&sq=BLOOMBER%20EXTORTION%20CASE&st=cse. Accessed January 23, 2009.
  88. Sullivan, B. (June 14, 2004). Survey: Two million bank accounts robbed. MSNBC. Available at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5184077/.
  89. Taylor, P., & Quayle, E (2003). Child pornography: An Internet crime. London: Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
  90. Tjaden, R., & Thoennes, N. (November, 1998). Prevalence, incidence and consequences of violence against women: Findings against the National Violence Against Women Survey. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief Washington DC: National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  91. Walby, S., & Allen, J. (2004). Domestic violence, sexual assault and stalking: Findings of the British Crime Survey (Home Office Research Study 206). London: Home OfficeGoogle Scholar
  92. Wall, D. S. (2007). Cybercrime. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  93. West, D. (2000). Paedophilia: Plague or panic? The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 11(3), 511–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wikipedia (2009). Computer crime. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime. Accessed January 23, 2009.
  95. Wilson, D., Patterson, A., Powell, G., & Hembury, R. (September, 2006). Fraud and technology crimes: Findings from the 2003/04 British Crime Survey, the 2004 Offending, Crime and Justice Survey and administrative sources. Home Office Online Report. Available at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs06/rdsolr0906.pdf.
  96. Wolak, J., Mitchell, K., & Finkelhor, D. (2006). Online victimization of youth: Five years later. University of New Hampshire: National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.Google Scholar
  97. Wortley, R. (1997). Reconsidering the role of opportunity in situational crime prevention. In G. Newman, R. V. Clarke, & S. G. Shoham (Eds.). Rational choice and situational crime prevention (pp. 65–81). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  98. Wortley, R., & Smallbone, S. (2006). Child pornography on the Internet. (Problem Oriented Guides for Police, No. 41). Washington DC: Dept. of Justice, COPS and Center for Problem Oriented Policing.Google Scholar
  99. Wright, C. (August 14, 2000). Murder.com: Was the Web really to blame for the death of Amy Boyer? Boston Phoenix, Available at: http://weeklywire.com/ww/08-14-00/boston_feature_1.html.
  100. Yar, M. (2006). Cybercrime and society. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  101. Young, L. R. (1995). United States computer crime laws, criminals and deterrence. International Yearbook of Law, Computers and Technology, 9(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graeme R. Newman
    • 1
  1. 1.University at Albany, SUNYAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations