The Joint Effects of Offender Race/Ethnicity and Sexon Sentencing Outcomes

  • Pauline K. Brennan
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Statistical data suggest that offender race/ethnicity and sex play important roles in criminal justice processing. Minority offenders and males, for example, are disproportionately overrepresented in U.S. prisons and jails. Specifically, based on the number of prison and jail inmates incarcerated in state facilities at mid-2005, Harrison and Beck (2006) estimated that rates of incarceration were five and one-half times higher for blacks and two times higher for Hispanics than they were for whites (p. 10). With regard to offender sex, at mid-2006, males constituted 92.8% of the U.S. prison population; they were 14 times more likely than women to be incarcerated (Sabol, Minton, & Harrison, June 2007, p. 5). Moreover, researchers estimate that a male has a 1 in 9 chance of going to prison in his lifetime, while a female has a 1 in 56 chance (Bonczar, 2003, p. 8).


White Woman Black Woman Black Male White Female Minority Woman 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adler, F. (1985, reissued). Sisters in crime. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Albonetti, C. A. (1991). An integration of theories to explain judicial discretion. Social Problems, 38, 247–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albonetti, C. A. (1997). Sentencing under the federal sentencing guidelines: Effects of defendant characteristics, guilty pleas, and departures on sentence outcomes for drug offenses. Law and Society Review, 31, 789–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albonetti, C. A. (2002). The joint conditioning effect of defendant’s gender and ethnicity on length of imprisonment under federal sentencing guidelines for drug trafficking/manufacturing offenders. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 6, 39–60.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, D. (1995). Crime and the politics of hysteria. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  6. Armstrong, I. (1999). Women and their ‘uncontrollable impulses’: The medicalization of women’s crime and differential gender sentencing. Psychiatry, Psychology, and Law, 6, 67–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barak, G. (1994). Between the waves: Mass-mediated themes of crime and justice. Berkeley Journal of Sociology, 21, 133–147.Google Scholar
  8. Barlow, M. H. (1998). Race and the problem of crime in “Time” and “Newsweek” cover stories, 1946 to 1995. Social Justice, 25, 149–183.Google Scholar
  9. Barnett, B. (2006). Medea in the media: Narrative and myth in newspaper coverage of women who kill their children. Journalism, 7, 411–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Belknap, J. (1996). The invisible woman: Gender, crime, and justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  11. Berrington, E., & Honkatukia, P. (2002). An evil monster and a poor thing: Female violence in the media. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 3, 50–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Becker, H. S. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bernstein, I. N., Kelley, W. R., & Doyle, P.A. (1977). Societal reaction to deviants: A case of criminal defendants. American Sociological Review, 42, 743–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernstein, I., Kick, E., Leung, J. T., & Schultz, B. (1977). Charge reduction: An intermediate stage in the process of labeling criminal defendants. Social Forces, 56, 362–384.Google Scholar
  15. Bickle, G. S., & Peterson, R. D. (1991). The impact of gender-based family roles on criminal sentencing. Social Problems, 38, 372–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bonczar, T. P. (2003). Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974–2001. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 197976.Google Scholar
  17. Bond-Maupin, L. (1998). “That wasn’t even me they showed”: Women as criminals on America’s Most Wanted. Violence Against Women, 4, 30–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brennan, P. K. (2002). Women sentenced to jail in New York City. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC.Google Scholar
  19. Brennan, P. K. (2006). Sentencing female misdemeanants: An examination of the direct and indirect effects of race/ethnicity. Justice Quarterly, 23, 60–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brennan, P. K., & Spohn, C. (2008). Race/ethnicity and sentencing outcomes among drug offenders in North Carolina. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24, 371–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bridges, G. S., & Steen, S. (1998). Racial disparities in official assessments of juvenile offenders: Attributional stereotypes as mediating mechanisms. American Sociological Review, 63, 554–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brittan, A., & Maynard, M. (1984). Sexism, racism, and oppression. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  23. Broverman, I. K., Vogel, S. R., Broverman, D. M., Clarkson, F. E., & Rosenkrantz, P. S. (1972). Sex-role stereotypes: A current appraisal. Journal of Social Issues, 28, 59–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Castro, D. O. (1998). ‘Hot blood and easy virtue’: Mass media and the making of racist latino/a stereotypes. In C. R. Mann & M. S. Zatz (Eds.), Images of color, images of crime (pp. 134–144). Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  25. Chambliss, W. J. (1995). Crime control and ethnic minorities: Legitimizing racial oppression by creating moral panics. In D. Hawkins (Ed.), Ethnicity, race, and crime: Perspectives across time and space (pp. 235–258). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  26. Chermak, S. (1994). Body count news: How crime is presented in the news media. Justice Quarterly, 11(4), 561–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chesney-Lind, M. (1999). Media misogyny: Demonizing “violent” girls and women. In J. Ferrell & N. Websdale (Eds.), Making trouble: Cultural constructions of crime, deviance and control (pp. 115–140). New York: Walter de Gruyter, Inc.Google Scholar
  28. Chiricos, T. G., & Bales, W. D. (1991). Unemployment and punishment: An empirical assessment. Criminology, 29, 701–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chiricos, T. G., & Crawford, C. (1995). Race and imprisonment: A contextual assessment of the evidence. In D. F. Hawkins (Ed.), Ethnicity, race, and crime: Perspectives across time and space (pp. 281–309). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  30. Crawford, C. (2000). Gender, race, and habitual offender sentencing in Florida. Criminology, 38, 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crawford, C., Chiricos, T. G., & Kleck, G. (1998). Race, racial threat, and sentencing of habitual offenders. Criminology, 36, 481–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Crew, K. B. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: Chivalry or patriarchy? Justice Quarterly, 8, 59–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crow, M. S., & Johnson, K. A. (2008). Race, ethnicity, and habitual-offender sentencing: A multilevel analysis of individual contextual threat. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 19, 63–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Daly, K. (1994). Gender and punishment disparity. In G. S. Bridges & M. A. Myers (Eds.), Inequality, Crime, and Social Control (pp. 117–133). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  35. Daly, K., & Bordt, R. L. (1995). Sex effects and sentencing: An analysis of the statistical literature. Justice Quarterly, 12, 141–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Daly, K., & Tonry, M. (1997). Gender, race, and sentencing. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research. (Vol. 22, pp. 201–252). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  37. Dates, J. L., & Pease, E. C. (1997). Warping the world – Media’s mangled images of race. In E. E. Dennis & E. C. Pease (Eds.), The media in black and white (pp. 77–82). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. Datesman, S. K., & Scarpitti, F. R. (1980). Unequal protection for males and females in juvenile court. In S. K. Datesman & F. R. Scarpitti (Eds.), Women, crime, and justice (pp. 300–318). New York: Oxford.Google Scholar
  39. Demuth, S., & Steffensmeier, S. (2004). Ethnicity effects on sentence outcomes in large urban courts: Comparisons among white, black, and Hispanic defendants. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 994–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Edwards, S. S. M. (1986). Neither bad nor mad: The female violent offender reassessed. Women’s Studies International Forum, 9, 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Engen, R. L., Gainey, R. R., Crutchfield, R. D., & Weis, J. G. (2003). Discretion and disparity under sentencing guidelines: The role of departures and structured alternatives. Criminology, 41, 99–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Engen, R. L., & Steen, S. (2000). The power to punish: Discretion and sentencing reform in the war on drugs. American Journal of Sociology, 105, 1357–1395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Entman, R. (1990). Modern racism and the images of blacks in local television news. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7, 332–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Entman, R. (1992). Blacks in the news: Television, modern racism and cultural change. Journalism Quarterly, 69,341–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Entman, R. (1994). Representation and reality in the portrayal of blacks on network television news. Journalism Quarterly, 71, 509–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Entman, R. (1997). African Americans according to TV news. In E. E. Dennis & E. C. Pease (Eds.), The media in black and white (pp. 29–36). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. Estep, R. (1982). Women’s roles in crime as depicted by television and newspapers. Journal of Popular Culture, 16, 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Farnworth, M., & Teske, R. H. C, Jr. (1995). Gender differences in felony court processing: Three hypotheses of disparity. Women & Criminal Justice, 6, 23–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Farr, K. A. (1997). Aggravating and differentiating factors in the cases of white and minority women on death row. Crime & Delinquency, 43, 260–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Farr, K. A. (2000). Defeminizing and dehumanizing female murderers: Depictions of lesbians on death row. Women & Criminal Justice, 11, 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fishman, L. T. (1998). The black bogeyman and white self-righteousness. In C. R. Mann & M. S. Zatz (Eds.), Images of color, images of crime (pp. 109–125). Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  52. Gainey, R. R., Steen, S., & Engen, R. L. (2005). Exercising options: An Assessment of the use of alternative sanctions for drug offenders. Justice Quarterly, 22, 488–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gladwell, M. (2005). Blink: The power of thinking without thinking. New York: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  54. Gilkes, C. T. (1983). From slavery to social welfare: Racism and the control of black women. In A. Swerdlow & H. Lessinger (Eds.), Class, race, and sex: The dynamics of control (pp. 288–300). Boston: G.K. Hall and Company.Google Scholar
  55. Grabe, M. E., Trager, K. D., Lear, M., & Rauch, J. (2006). Gender in crime news: A case study test of the chivalry hypothesis. Mass Communication and Society, 9, 137–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Griffin, T., & Wooldredge, J. (2006). Sex-based disparities in felony dispositions before versus after sentencing reform in Ohio. Criminology, 44, 893–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gruhl, J., Welch, S., & Spohn, C. (1984). Women as criminal defendants: A test for paternalism. The Western Political Science Quarterly, 37, 456–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Harris, A. R. (1977). Sex and theories of deviance: Toward a functional theory of deviant type-scripts. American Sociological Review, 42, 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Harrison, P. M., & Beck, A. J. (2006). Prison and jail inmates at midyear 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 213133.Google Scholar
  60. Hartley, R. D., Maddan, S., & Spohn, C. (2007). Prosecutorial discretion: An examination of substantial assistance departures in Federal crack-cocaine and powder-cocaine cases. Justice Quarterly, 24, 382–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Healey, J. F. (1997). Race, ethnicity, and gender in the United States: Inequality, group conflict, and power. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
  62. Heilbrun, A. B. (1982). Female criminals: Behavior and treatment within the criminal justice system. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 9, 341–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. hooks, b. (1981). Ain’t I a woman? Black women and feminism. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  64. Huckerby, J. (2003). Women who kill their children: Case study and conclusions concerning the differences in the fall from maternal grace by Khoua and Andrea Yates. Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, 10, 149–172.Google Scholar
  65. Humphries, D. (1981). Serious crime, news coverage, and ideology: A content analysis of crime coverage in a metropolitan newspaper. Crime & Delinquency, 27, 191–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hurwitz, J., & Peffley, M. (1997). Public perceptions of race and crime: The role of racial stereotypes. American Journal of Political Science, 41, 375–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jenkins, P. (1994). “The Ice Age:” The social construction of a drug panic. Justice Quarterly, 65, 265–277.Google Scholar
  68. Kautt, P. & Spohn, C. (2002). Crack-ing down on black drug offenders? Testing for interactions between offender race, drug type, and sentencing strategy in federal drug sentences. Justice Quarterly, 19, 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Klein, D. (1973). The etiology of female crime: A review of the literature. Issues in Criminology, 8, 3–30.Google Scholar
  70. Klein, D. (1995). The etiology of female crime: A review of the literature. In B. R. Price & N. J. Sokoloff (Eds.), The criminal justice system and women: Offenders, victims, and workers (pp. 30–53). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  71. Klein, S., Petersilia, J., & Turner, S. (1990). Race and imprisonment decisions in California. Science, 247, 812–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Koons-Witt, B. (2002). The effect of gender on the decision to incarcerate before and after the introduction of sentencing guidelines. Criminology, 40, 297–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kramer, J. H., & Ulmer, J. T. (2002). Downward departures for serious violent offenders: Local court “corrections” to Pennsylvania’s sentencing guidelines. Criminology, 40, 897–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kruttschnitt, C. (1980–81). Social statuses and the sentences of female offenders. Law and Society Review, 15,247–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kruttschnitt, C. (1982). Women, crime, and dependency: An application of the Theory of Law. Criminology, 19, 495–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kruttschnitt, C. (1984). Sex and criminal court dispositions: The unresolved controversy. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 21, 213–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kurokawa, M. (1971). Mutual perceptions of racial images: White, black, and Japanese Americans. Journal of Social Issues, 27, 213–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Landrine, H. (1985). Race x class stereotypes of women. Sex Roles, 13, 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lagan, P. (1996). Sentence reductions for drug traffickers for assisting Federal prosecutors. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  80. Macdonald, M. (1995). Representing women: Myths of femininity in the popular media. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  81. Madriz, E. (1997). Images of criminals and victims: A study on women’s fear and social control. Gender & Society, 11, 342–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mann, C., & Zatz, M. S. (Eds.) (1998). Images of color, images of crime. Los Angeles: Roxbury.Google Scholar
  83. Maxfield, L. D., & Kramer, J. H. (1998). Substantial assistance: An empirical yardstick gauging equity in current Federal sentencing practice. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Sentencing Commission.Google Scholar
  84. McDonald, D.C., & Carlson, K.E. (1993). Sentencing in the Federal courts: Does race matter? The transition to sentencing guidelines, 1986–90. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 145328.Google Scholar
  85. Mitchell, O. (2005). A meta-analysis of race and sentencing research: Explaining the inconsistencies. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 21, 439–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Myers, M. A. (1989). Symbolic policy and the sentencing of drug offenders. Law & Society Review, 23, 295–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nagel, I. H., & Johnson, B. L. (1994). The role of gender in a structured sentencing system: Equal treatment, policy choices, and the sentencing of female offenders under the United States Sentencing Guidelines. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 85, 181–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nagel, I. H., & Weitzman, L. J. (1971). Women as litigants. Hastings Law Journal, 23, 171–198.Google Scholar
  89. Naylor, B. (2001). Reporting violence in the British print media: Gendered stories. The Howard Journal, 40(2), 180–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Obitko, M. (1977). Custodians of a house of resistance: Black women respond to slavery. In D. V. Hiller & R. A. Sheets (Eds.), Women and men: The consequences of power (pp. 265–269). Cincinnati, OH: University ofCincinnati.Google Scholar
  91. Parisi, N. (1982). Are females treated differently? A review of the theoretical and evidence on sentencing and parole decisions. In N. Rafter & E.A. Stanko (Eds.), Judge, lawyer, victim, thief (pp. 205–220). Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Pease, J. H., & Pease, W. H. (1990). Ladies, women, and wenches. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  93. Peffley, M., Shields, T., & Williams, B. (1996). The intersection of race and crime in television news stories: An experimental study. Political Communication, 13, 309–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Portillos, E. L. (1998). Latinos and Latinas: Latinos, gangs, and drugs. In C. R. Mann & M. S. Zatz (Eds.), Images of color, images of crime (pp. 156–165). Los Angeles: Roxbury.Google Scholar
  95. Rodriguez, S. F., Curry, T., & Lee, G. (2006). Gender differences in criminal sentencing: Do effects vary across violent, property, and drug offenses? Social Science Quarterly, 87, 318–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rome, D. M. (1998). Murderers, rapists, and drug addicts. In C. R. Mann & M. S. Zatz (Eds.), Images of color, images of crime (pp. 85–95). Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  97. Sabol, W. J., Couture, H., & Harrison, P. M. (2007, December). Prisoners in 2006. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 219416.Google Scholar
  98. Sabol, W. J., Minton, T. D., & Harrison, P. M. (2007, June). Prison and jail inmates at midyear 2006. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 217657.Google Scholar
  99. Sarat, A. (1993). Research on the death penalty: Speaking of death: Narratives of violence in capital trials. Law & Society Review, 27, 19–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schur, E. M. (1971). Labeling deviant behavior. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  101. Schur, E. M. (1983). Labeling women deviant: Gender, stigma, and social control. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Smart, C. (1977). Women, crime, and criminology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  103. Smith, T. W. (1990). Ethnic Images. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from
  104. Spohn, C. (1999). Gender and sentencing of drug offenders: Is chivalry dead? Criminal Justice Policy Review, 9, 365–399.Google Scholar
  105. Spohn, C. (2000). Thirty years of sentencing reform: The quest for a racially-neutral sentencing process. In J. Horney (Ed.), Policies, processes, and decisions of the criminal justice system. (Vol. 3, pp. 427–501). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  106. Spohn, C., & Beichner, D. (2000). Is preferential treatment of female offenders a thing of the past? A multisite study of gender, race, and imprisonment. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 11, 149–184.Google Scholar
  107. Spohn C., & Holleran, D. (2000). The imprisonment penalty paid by young, unemployed black and Hispanic male offenders. Criminology, 38, 281–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Spohn, C., & Spears, J. W. (1997). Gender and case processing decisions: A comparison of case outcomes for male and female defendants charged with violent felonies. Women & Criminal Justice, 8, 29–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Spohn, C., & Spears, J. (2000). Sentencing of drug offenders in three cities: Does race/ethnicity make a difference? In D. F. Hawkins, S. L. Myers, Jr., & R. N. Stone (Eds.), Crime control and social justice: A delicate balance (pp. 197–231). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  110. Spohn, C., Welch, S., & Gruhl, J. (1985). Women defendants in court: The interaction between sex and race in convicting and sentencing. Social Science Quarterly, 67, 178–198.Google Scholar
  111. Steen, S., Engen, R. L., & Gainey, R. R. (2005). Images of danger and culpability: Racial stereotyping, case processing, and criminal sentencing. Criminology, 43, 435–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Steffensmeier, D. (1980). Assessing the impact of the women’s movement on sex-based differences in the handling of adult criminal defendants. Crime & Delinquency, 26, 344–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Steffensmeier, D., & Demuth, S. (2000). Ethnicity and sentencing outcomes in US federal courts: Who is punished more harshly? American Sociological Review, 65, 705–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Steffensmeier, D., & Demuth, S. (2001). Ethnicity and judges’ sentencing decisions: Hispanic-black-white comparisons. Criminology, 39, 145–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Steffensmeier, D., & Demuth, S. (2006). Does gender modify the effects of race-ethnicity on criminal sanctioning? Sentences for male and female white, black, and Hispanic defendants. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 22, 241–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Steffensmeier, D., & Kramer, J. (1980). The differential impact of criminal stigmatization on male and female felons. Sex Roles, 6, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Steffensmeier, D., Kramer, J., & Streifel, C. (1993). Gender and imprisonment decisions. Criminology, 31, 411–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Steffensmeier, D., Kramer, J., & Ulmer, J. (1995). Age differences in sentencing. Criminal Justice Quarterly, 12,701–719.Google Scholar
  119. Steffensmeier, D., Ulmer, J., & Kramer, J. (1998). The interaction of race, gender, and age in criminal sentencing: The punishment cost of being young, black, and male. Criminology, 36, 763–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Surette, R. (1992). Media, crime, and criminal justice: Images and realities. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  121. Tonry, M. (1995). Malign neglect. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Ulmer, J. T., & Johnson, B. (2004). Sentencing in context: A multilevel analysis. Criminology, 42, 137–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Unnever, J. D. (1982). Direct and organizational discrimination in the sentencing of drug offenders. Social Problems, 30, 212–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Unnever, J. D., & Hembroff, L. A. (1988). The prediction of racial/ethnic sentencing disparities: An expectation states approach. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25, 53–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. U.S. Sentencing Commission (1995). Substantial assistance departures in the United States Courts. Draft Final Report. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  126. Visher, C. A. (1983). Gender, police arrest decisions, and notions of chivalry. Criminology, 21, 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wilczynski, A. (1991). Images of women who kill their infants: The mad and the bad. Women & Criminal Justice, 2, 71–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Willemsen, T. M., & van Schie, E. C. M. (1989). Sex stereotypes and responses to juvenile delinquency. Sex Roles, 20, 623–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Young, V. D. (1986). Gender expectations and their impact on black female offenders and victims. Justice Quarterly, 3, 305–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zatz, M. S. (1984). Race, ethnicity, and determinate sentencing: A new dimension to an old controversy. Criminology, 22, 147–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pauline K. Brennan
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Nebraska at OmahaOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations