Advertisement

Darfur: Efforts to Forgive and Reconcile in an Unresolved Conflict

  • Suliman A. Giddo
Chapter
Part of the Peace Psychology Book Series book series (PPBS)

Abstract

Disasters, whether natural or man-made, have a tremendous psychological impact on individuals, communities, societies, and nations. In the case of natural disasters, the affected people blame their life circumstances (e.g., they live in an earthquake-prone area) even as considerable bitterness remains in their soul and they suffer from lingering trauma. However, in the case of man-made disasters, grievance and bitterness expand beyond the posttraumatic disorder (PTSD) seen in natural disaster victims to become posttraumatic disorder that stems from the violent behavior a victim suffers at the hand of an actual person (Digeser, 2001). In order to discuss this in more depth, let us use the Darfur Genocide as a case study. This chapter will emphasize the psychological impact resulting from the conflict and will focus especially on ways to reach the forgiveness necessary for the healing of a society.

Keywords

Central Government United Nations International Criminal Rebel Group Gang Rape 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ali, M. A. (n.d.). The Importance of forgiveness in Islam. Institute of Islamic Information & Education. http://www.iiie.net/node/52. P.O. Box 410129, Chicago, Illinois 60641-0129, U.S.
  2. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Berry, J. W., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (2001). Forgivingness, relationship quality, stress while imagining relationship events, and physical and mental health. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 447–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowers, R. (2005). Fullness of forgiveness. Oregon City, OR: Living Free Publications.Google Scholar
  5. Digeser, P. E. (2001). Political forgiveness. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Enright, R. (2001). Forgiveness is a choice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  7. Exline, J. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (2000). Expressing forgiveness and repentance: Benefits and barriers. In M. E. McCullough, K. Pargament, & C. Thoresen (Eds.), Forgiveness: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  8. Fitzgibbons, R., Enright, R., & O’Brien, T. F. (2004). Learning to forgive. American School Board Journal, 191(7), 24–26.Google Scholar
  9. Human Rights Watch; Entrenching Impunity: Government responsibility for International crimes. (2005) hrw.org/reports/2005/darfur1205/darfur1205text.pdfGoogle Scholar
  10. International Criminal Court (ICC). All legal documents in the cases of ICC-02/05-01/07 Case. The Prosecutor v. Ahmad Muhammad Harun (“Ahmad Harun”) and Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman (“Ali Kushayb”). http://www.icc-cpi.int/cases/Darfur.html
  11. Johnson, K. A. (1986). A model of forgiveness: Theory formulation and implications. La Mirada, CA: Biola University.Google Scholar
  12. Karen, R. (2003). The forgiving self: The road from resentment to connection. New York: Random House/Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  13. Karremans, J. C., Van Lange, P. A. M., & Ouwerkerk, J. W. (2003). When forgiving enhances psychological well-being: The role of interpersonal commitment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1011–1026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lawler, K. A., Younger, J. W., Piferi, R. L., Billington, E., Jobe, R., Edmondson, K., et al. (2003). A change of heart: Cardiovascular correlates of forgiveness in response to interpersonal conflict. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 26, 373–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Maltby, J., Macaskill, A., & Day, L. (2001). Failure to forgive self and others: A replication and extension of the relationship between forgiveness, personality, social desirability and general health. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 881–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mass Grave Memories Feed Fear In Darfur. (2007, May, 27 Sunday). (AP). Reprint http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article22064
  17. McCullough, M. E., Pargament, K. I., & Thoresen, C. E. (2000). The psychology of forgiveness: History, conceptual issues, and overview. In M. E. McCullough, K. I. Pargament, & C. E. Thoresen (Eds.), Forgiveness: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 1–14). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  18. Nelson, M. (1992). A new theory of forgiveness. Bloomington, IN: Purdue University.Google Scholar
  19. Smedes, L. B. (1984). The relationship between forgiveness and reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. United Nations (2005a, January). International commission of inquiry on Darfur. Report, Executive Summary, pp. 3–4; Section I: p. 26 ff. http://www.un.org/news/dh/sudan/com_inq_darfur.pdf
  21. United Nations. (2005b, January). International commission of inquiry on Darfur. Executive Summary (p. 5). http://www.un.org/news/dh/sudan/com_inq_darfur.pdf
  22. United Nations. (2005c, January). International commission of inquiry on Darfur. Report, Section III, 1–5 (pp. 135–140). [Sections on perpetrating, aiding, abetting, planning, and ordering international crimes against humanity.] http://www.un.org/news/dh/sudan/com_inq_darfur.pdf
  23. Volkan, V. D. (2001). Mind and human interaction. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia.Google Scholar
  24. Working to Forgive. Everett L Worthington: A campaign for Forgiveness Research, http://www.forgive.org/
  25. Wade, N. G., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (2005). In Search of a common core: A content analysis of interventions to promote forgiveness. Psychotherapy: Theory, research, practice and training, 42(2), 160–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Worthington, E. L. (2001). Five steps to forgiveness: The art and science of forgiving. New York: Random House/Crown.Google Scholar
  27. Worthington, E. L. (Ed.). (2005). Handbook of forgiveness. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Worthington, E. L. (2006). Forgiveness and reconciliation: Theory and application. East Sussex, UK: Taylor & Francis/Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Yoder, C., & Zehr, H. (Eds.). (2005). The little book of trauma healing: When violence strikes and community is threatened. Intercourse, PA: Good Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suliman A. Giddo
    • 1
  1. 1.Meaningful Word and Fordham UniversityFairfaxUS

Personalised recommendations