Development of the Auditory Cortex

Chapter

Abstract

Neuronal development is a progressive series of constructive and reductive events including division of progenitors, their accretion at specific locations, differentiation into neuronal and glial subtypes, and circuit refinement. The final goal is to establish adaptive neuronal circuits controlling the behavior of the organism. The complex architecture of the adult auditory cortex (AC) is thus the consequence of many developmental processes taking place prenatally and postnatally. The end of the developmental period is traditionally defined by sexual maturity; however, substantial adaptations in cortical circuitry continue throughout life. We identify some rules applicable to cortical development in general and to AC in particular, concentrating on the species most common in hearing research. We build on comparative reviews on the structural and functional development of the auditory system (Payne 1992; Cant 1998; Sanes and Walsh 1998; Romand 1997; Yan 2003). We also consider studies on the AC structural and functional plasticity during development. Studies on adult plasticity are beyond the scope of this analysis.

Keywords

Permeability Migration Depression Tyrosine Retina 

Abbreviations

AC

auditory cortex

AI

primary auditory cortex

AMPA

a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionic acid

BMP

bone morphogenetic protein

EI

excitatory–inhibitory

EPSP

excitatory postsynaptic potential

GABA

gamma-aminobutyric acid

IC

inferior colliculus

IPSP

inhibitory postsynaptic potential

LTD

long-term depression

LTP

long-term potentiation

MGB

medial geniculate body

MMN

mismatch negativity

NMDA

N-methyl-D-aspartic acid

PSP

postsynaptic potential

TCA

thalamocortical afferents

VI

primary visual cortex

VZ

ventricular zone

Notes

Acknowledgments

Space limitations preclude more complete citations of the primary literature; as an alternative, reference to comprehensive reviews was often made. Supported by: grants from Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Germany) and the National Institutes of Health (USA) (A.K.); and by the Deafness Research Foundation, Fight for Sight, Whitehall Foundation, National Science Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health (USA) (S.L.P.).

References

  1. Aitkin L, Nelson J, Farrington M, and Swann S (1991) Neurogenesis in the brain auditory pathway of a marsupial, the northern native cat (Dasyurus hallucatus). Journal of Comparative Neurology 309:250–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allendoerfer KL and Shatz CJ (1994) The subplate, a transient neocortical structure: its role in the development of connections between thalamus and cortex. Annual Reviews of Neurosciences 17:185–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aramakis VB, Hsieh CY, Leslie FM, and Metherate R (2000) A critical period for nicotine-induced disruption of synaptic development in rat auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 20:6106–6116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arber S (2004) Subplate neurons: bridging the gap to function in the cortex. Trends in Neuroscience 27:111–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakin JS and Weinberger NM (1996) Induction of a physiological memory in the cerebral cortex by stimulation of the nucleus basalis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93:11219–11224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bao SW, Chang EF, Davis JD, Gobeske KT, and Merzenich MM (2003) Progressive degradation and subsequent refinement of acoustic representations in the adult auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 23:10765–10775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bavelier D and Neville HJ (2002) Cross-modal plasticity: where and how? Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3:443–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Becker LE, Armstrong DL, Chan F, and Wood MM (1984) Dendritic development in human occipital cortical neurons. Brain Research 315:117–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ben-Ari Y (2002) Excitatory actions of GABA during development: the nature of the nurture. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3:728–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benson DL, Colman DR, and Huntley GW (2001) Molecules, maps and synapse specificity. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2:899–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bishop KM, Garel S, Nakagawa Y, Rubenstein JL, and O’Leary DD (2003) Emx1 and Emx2 cooperate to regulate cortical size, lamination, neuronal differentiation, development of cortical efferents, and thalamocortical pathfinding. Journal of Comparative Neurology 457:345–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bishop KM, Goudreau G, and O’Leary DD (2000) Regulation of area identity in the mammalian neocortex by Emx2 and Pax6. Science 288:344–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bishop D and Mogford K (1993) Language Development in Exceptional Circumstances Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Howe, Hillsdale.Google Scholar
  14. Bizley JK and King AJ (2009) Visual influences on ferret auditory cortex. Hearing Research 258:55–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bizley JK, Nodal FR, Bajo VM, Nelken I, and King AJ (2007) Physiological and anatomical evidence for multisensory interactions in auditory cortex. Cerebral Cortex 17:2172–2189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blaschke AJ, Staley K, and Chun J (1996) Widespread programmed cell death in proliferative and postmitotic regions of the fetal cerebral cortex. Development 122:1165–1174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bonham BH, Cheung SW, Godey B, and Schreiner CE (2004) Spatial organization of frequency response areas and rate/level functions in the developing AI. Journal of Neurophysiology 91:841–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bronchti G, Heil P, Sadka R, Hess A, Scheich H, and Wollberg Z (2002) Auditory activation of ’visual’ cortical areas in the blind mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi). European Journal of Neuroscience 16:311–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brosch M, Selezneva E, and Scheich H (2005) Nonauditory events of a behavioral procedure activate auditory cortex of highly trained monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience 25:6797–6806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brugge JF (1992) Development of the lower auditory brainstem of the cat. In: Romand R (ed). Development of Auditory and Vestibular Systems 2. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 173–296.Google Scholar
  21. Brugge JF, Reale RA, and Wilson GF (1988) Sensitivity of auditory cortical neurons of kittens to monaural and binaural high frequency sound. Hearing Research 34:127–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cant NB (1998) Structural development of the mammalian auditory pathways. In: Rubel EW, Popper AN, and Fay RR (eds). Springer Handbook of Auditory Research, volume 9, Development of the Auditory System. Springer, New York, pp. 315–413.Google Scholar
  23. Carmignoto G and Vicini S (1992) Activity-dependent decrease in NMDA receptor responses during development of the visual cortex. Science 258:1007–1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ceponiene R, Kushnerenko E, Fellman V, Renlund M, Suominen K, and Näätänen R (2002a) Event-related potential features indexing central auditory discrimination by newborns. Cognitive Brain Research 13:101–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ceponiene R, Rinne T, and Näätänen R (2002b) Maturation of cortical sound processing as indexed by event-related potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology 113:870–882.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cetas JS, de Venecia RK, and McMullen NT (1999) Thalamocortical afferents of Lorente de Nó: medial geniculate axons that project to primary auditory cortex have collateral branches to layer I. Brain Research 830:203–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chang EF and Merzenich MM (2003) Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science 300:498–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Changeux J-P and Danchin A (1976) Selective stabilisation of developing synapses as a mechanism for the specification of neuronal networks. Nature 264:705–712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Citri A and Malenka RC (2008) Synaptic plasticity: multiple forms, functions, and mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology 33:18–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clancy B, Darlington RB, and Finlay BL (2001) Translating developmental time across mammalian species. Neuroscience 105:7–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clarke PG, Posada A, Primi MP, and Castagne V (1998) Neuronal death in the central nervous system during development. Biomedical Pharmacotherapy 52:356–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Coggeshall RE (1964) A study of diencephalic development in the albino rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 122:241–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cohen LG, Weeks RA, Sadato N, Celnik P, Ishii K, and Hallett M (1999) Period of susceptibility for cross-modal plasticity in the blind. Annals of Neurology 45: 451–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Coleman J (1990) Development of auditory system structures. In: Coleman J (ed). Development of Sensory Systems in Mammals. Wiley, New York, pp. 205–247.Google Scholar
  35. Conel JL (1939–1967) The Postnatal Development of Human Cerebral Cortex. Vol. I–VIII. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  36. Cornwell P, Ravizza R, and Payne B (1984) Extrinsic visual and auditory cortical connections in the 4-day-old kitten. Journal of Comparative Neurology 229:97–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cragg BG (1975) The development of synapses in the visual system of the cat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 160:147–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Crair MC and Malenka RC (1995) A critical period for long-term potentiation at thalamocortical synapses. Nature 375:325–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. DeCasper AJ and Fifer WP (1980) Of human bonding: newborns prefer their mothers’ voices. Science 208:1174–1176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dehaene-Lambertz G (2000) Cerebral specialization for speech and non-speech stimuli in infants. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12:449–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dehaene-Lambertz G, Dehaene S, and Hertz-Pannier L (2002) Functional neuroimaging of speech perception in infants. Science 298:2013–2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dehay C, Kennedy H, and Bullier J (1988) Characterization of transient cortical projections from auditory, somatosensory, and motor cortices to visual areas 17, 18, and 19 in the kitten. Journal of Comparative Neurology 272:68–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dekaban AS (1978) Changes in brain weights during the span of human life: relation of brain weights to body heights and body weights. Annals of Neurology 4:345–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ding SL and Elberger AJ (2001) Postnatal development of biotinylated dextran amine-labeled corpus callosum axons projecting from the visual and auditory cortices to the visual cortex of the rat. Experimental Brain Research 136:179–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ding SL, Rockland KS, and Zheng DS (2000) Parvalbumin immunoreactive Cajal-Retzius and non-Cajal-Retzius neurons in layer I of different cortical regions of human newborn. Anatomy & Embryology (Berlin) 201:407–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dobbing J and Sands J (1971) Vulnerability of developing brain. IX. The effect of nutritional growth retardation on the timing of the brain growth-spurt. Biology of the Neonate 19:363–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Eggermont JJ (1989) The onset and development of auditory function: contributions of evoked potential studies. Journal of Speech and Language Pathology and Audiology 13:5–27.Google Scholar
  48. Eggermont JJ (1991) Maturational aspects of periodicity coding in cat primary auditory cortex. Hearing Research 57:45–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Eggermont JJ (1992) Stimulus induced and spontaneous rhythmic firing of single units in cat primary auditory cortex. Hearing Research 61:1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Eggermont JJ (1996) Differential maturation rates for response parameters in cat primary auditory cortex. Auditory Neuroscience 2:309–327.Google Scholar
  51. Eggermont JJ, Ponton CW, Don M, Waring MD, and Kwong B (1997) Maturational delays in cortical evoked potentials in cochlear implant users. Acta Oto-Laryngologica 117:161–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Emmorey K, Allen JS, Bruss J, Schenker N, and Damasio H (2003) A morphometric analysis of auditory brain regions in congenitally deaf adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:10049–10054.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Engel AK, Fries P, and Singer W (2001) Dynamic predictions: oscillations and synchrony in top-down processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2:704–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Erzurumlu RS, Chen ZF, and Jacquin MF (2006) Molecular determinants of the face map development in the trigeminal brainstem. Anatomical Record 288:121–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Estivill-Torrus G, Pearson H, van Meininger V, Price DJ, and Rashbass P (2002) Pax6 is required to regulate the cell cycle and the rate of progression from symmetrical to asymmetrical division in mammalian cortical progenitors. Development 129:455–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fagiolini M and Hensch TK (2000) Inhibitory threshold for critical-period activation in primary visual cortex. Nature 404:183–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fagiolini M, Katagiri H, Miyamoto H, Mori H, Grant SG, Mishina M, and Hensch TK (2003) Separable features of visual cortical plasticity revealed by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A signaling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:2854–2859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fallon JB, Irvine DR, and Shepherd RK (2009) Cochlear implant use following neonatal deafness influences the cochleotopic organization of the primary auditory cortex in cats. Journal of Comparative Neurology 512:101–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Feng JZ and Brugge JF (1983) Postnatal development of auditory callosal connections in the kitten. Journal of Comparative Neurology 214:416–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ferrer I, Soriano E, Del Rio JA, Alcantara S, and Auladell C (1992) Cell death and removal in the cerebral cortex during development. Progress in Neurobiology 39:1–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fine I, Finney EM, Boynton GM, and Dobkins KR (2005) Comparing the effects of auditory deprivation and sign language within the auditory and visual cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 17:1621–1637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Finlay BL (1992) Cell death and the creation of regional differences in neuronal numbers. Journal of Neurobiology 23:1159–1171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Finlay BL and Pallas SL (1989) Control of cell number in the developing mammalian visual system. Progress in Neurobiology 32:207–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Finlay BL and Slattery M (1983) Local differences in the amount of early cell death in neocortex predict adult local specializations. Science 219:1349–1351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Finney EM, Fine I, and Dobkins KR (2001) Visual stimuli activate auditory cortex in the deaf. Nature Neuroscience 4:1171–1173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fox MW (1968) Neuronal development and ontogeny of evoked potentials in auditory and visual cortex of the dog. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 24:213–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Friauf E and Kandler K (1990) Auditory projections to the inferior colliculus of the rat are present by birth. Neuroscience Letters 120:58–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Friauf E, McConnell SK, and Shatz CJ (1990) Functional synaptic circuits in the subplate during fetal and early postnatal development of cat visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 10:2601–2613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Friauf E and Shatz CJ (1991) Changing patterns of synaptic input to subplate and cortical plate during development of visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 66:2059–2071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Friederici AD (2006) The neural basis of language development and its impairment. Neuron 52:941–952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Fuchs E and Gould E (2000) Mini-review: in vivo neurogenesis in the adult brain: regulation and functional implications. European Journal of Neuroscience 12:2211–2214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Galaburda AM and Pandya DN (1983) The intrinsic architectonic and connectional organization of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology 221:169–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Galarreta M and Hestrin S (1999) A network of fast-spiking cells in the neocortex connected by electrical synapses. Nature 402:72–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gao WJ, Newman DE, Wormington AB, and Pallas SL (1999) Development of inhibitory circuitry in visual and auditory cortex of postnatal ferrets: immunocytochemical localization of GABAergic neurons. Journal of Comparative Neurology 409:261–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gao WJ and Pallas SL (1999) Cross-modal reorganization of horizontal connectivity in auditory cortex without altering thalamocortical projections. Journal of Neuroscience 19:7940–7950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Gao W-J, Power JL, Misra V, and Pallas SL (2000a) Cross-modal alteration of inhibitory circuitry in primary auditory cortex. Society of Neuroscience Abstracts 26:1608.Google Scholar
  77. Gao WJ, Wormington AB, Newman DE, and Pallas SL (2000b) Development of inhibitory circuitry in visual and auditory cortex of postnatal ferrets: immunocytochemical localization of calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons. Journal of Comparative Neurology 422:140–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ghazanfar AA and Schroeder CE (2006) Is neocortex essentially multisensory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10:278–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gibson JR, Beierlein M, and Connors BW (1999) Two networks of electrically coupled inhibitory neurons in neocortex. Nature 402:75–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Giedd JN (2004) Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1021:77–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gleeson JG and Walsh CA (2000) Neuronal migration disorders: from genetic diseases to developmental mechanisms. Trends in Neurosciences 23:352–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Glinka A, Wu W, Delius H, Monaghan AP, Blumenstock C, and Niehrs C (1998) Dickkopf-1 is a member of a new family of secreted proteins and functions in head induction. Nature 391:357–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Glinka A, Wu W, Onichtchouk D, Blumenstock C, and Niehrs C (1997) Head induction by simultaneous repression of Bmp and Wnt signalling in Xenopus. Nature 389:517–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Goodman CS and Shatz CJ (1993) Developmental mechanisms that generate precise patterns of neuronal connectivity. Cell 72 Supplement:77–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Granier-Deferre C, Lecanuet JP, Cohen H, and Busnel MC (1985) Feasibility of prenatal hearing test. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm) Supplement 421:93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Guillery RW (2005) Is postnatal neocortical maturation hierarchical? Trends in Neurosciences 28:512–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gummer AW and Mark RF (1994) Patterned neural activity in brain stem auditory areas of a prehearing mammal, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Neuroreport 5:685–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hahn ME, Walters JK, Lavooy J, and DeLuca J (1983) Brain growth in young mice: evidence on the theory of phrenoblysis. Developmental Psychobiology 16:377–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Harper MS and Wallace MN (1995) Changes in density of brainstem afferents in ferret primary auditory cortex (AI) during postnatal development. Journal of Anatomy (London) 186:373–382.Google Scholar
  90. Hartmann R, Shepherd RK, Heid S, and Klinke R (1997) Response of the primary auditory cortex to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in the congenitally deaf white cat. Hearing Research 112:115–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hashikawa T, Molinari M, Rausell E, and Jones EG (1995) Patchy and laminar terminations of medial geniculate axons in monkey auditory cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 362:195–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hastings NB and Gould E (2003) Neurons inhibit neurogenesis. Nature Medicine 9:264–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Heil P, Rajan R, and Irvine DRF (1992) Sensitivity of neurons in cat primary auditory cortex to tones and frequency-modulated stimuli. II: Organization of response properties along the ‘isofrequency’ dimension. Hearing Research 63:135–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Heins N, Cremisi F, Malatesta P, Gangemi RM, Corte G, Price J, Goudreau G, Gruss P, and Gotz M (2001) Emx2 promotes symmetric cell divisions and a multipotential fate in precursors from the cerebral cortex. Molecular and Cell Neuroscience 18:485–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Herrmann K, Antonini A, and Shatz CJ (1994) Ultrastructural evidence for synaptic interactions between thalamocortical axons and subplate neurons. European Journal of Neuroscience 6:1729–1742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hevner RF (2000) Development of connections in the human visual system during fetal mid-gestation: a DiI-tracing study. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 59:385–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hevner RF, Hodge RD, Daza RA, and Englund C (2006) Transcription factors in glutamatergic neurogenesis: conserved programs in neocortex, cerebellum, and adult hippocampus. Neuroscience Research 55:223–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. His W (1874) Unsere Körperform und das physiologische Problem innerer Entstehung. FCW Vogel, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  99. Honig LS, Herrmann K, and Shatz CJ (1996) Developmental changes revealed by immunohistochemical markers in human cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex 6:794–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hsieh CY, Chen Y, Leslie FM, and Metherate R (2002) Postnatal development of NR2A and NR2B mRNA expression in rat auditory cortex and thalamus. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology 3:479–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hubka P, Kral A, and Klinke R (2004) Input desynchronization and impaired columnar activation in deprived auditory cortex revealed by independent component analysis. In: Syka J and Merzenich MM (eds). Plasticity and Signal Representation in the Auditory System. Springer, Berlin, pp. 161–165.Google Scholar
  102. Huttenlocher PR and Dabholkar AS (1997) Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 387:167–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Innocenti GM, Berbel P, and Clarke S (1988) Development of projections from auditory to visual areas in the cat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 272:242–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Innocenti GM and Clarke S (1984) Bilateral transitory projection to visual areas from auditory cortex in kittens. Brain Research 316:143–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Innocenti GM, Clarke S, and Kraftsik R (1986) Interchange of callosal and association projections in the developing visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 6:1384–1409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Jacobson M (1991) Developmental Neurobiology. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  107. Kahn DM and Krubitzer L (2002) Massive cross-modal cortical plasticity and the emergence of a new cortical area in developmentally blind mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99:11429–11434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kalisman N, Silberberg G, and Markram H (2005) The neocortical microcircuit as a tabula rasa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:880–885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kennard MA (1938) Reorganization of motor function in the cerebral cortex of monkeys deprived of motor and premotor areas in infancy. Journal of Neurophysiology 1:477–496.Google Scholar
  110. Kilgard MP and Merzenich MM (2002) Order-sensitive plasticity in adult primary auditory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99:3205–3209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Kim HG, Fox K, and Connors BW (1995) Properties of excitatory synaptic events in neurons of primary somatosensory cortex of neonatal rats. Cerebral Cortex 5:148–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kinney HC, Brody BA, Kloman AS, and Gilles FH (1988) Sequence of central nervous system myelination in human infancy. II. Patterns of myelination in autopsied infants. Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 47:217–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Kirkwood A, Rioult MC, and Bear MF (1996) Experience-dependent modification of synaptic plasticity in visual cortex. Nature 381:526–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Klinke R, Kral A, Heid S, Tillein J, and Hartmann R (1999) Recruitment of the auditory cortex in congenitally deaf cats by long-term cochlear electrostimulation. Science 285:1729–1733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Konig N and Marty R (1974) On functions and structure of deep layers of immature auditory cortex. Journal of Physiology (Paris) 68:145–155.Google Scholar
  116. Konig N, Roch G, Marty R (1975) The onset of synaptogenesis in rat temporal cortex. Anatomy & Embryology (Berlin) 148:73–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kotak VC, Fujisawa S, Lee FA, Karthikeyan O, Aoki C, and Sanes DH (2005) Hearing loss raises excitability in the auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 25:3908–3918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kral A (2007) Unimodal and crossmodal plasticity in the “deaf” auditory cortex. International Journal of Audiology 46:479–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kral A, Hartmann R, and Klinke R (2006a) Recruitment of the auditory cortex in congenitally deaf cats. In: Lomber SG and Eggermont JJ (eds). Reprogramming the Cerebral Cortex. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 191–210.Google Scholar
  120. Kral A, Hartmann R, Tillein J, Heid S, and Klinke R (2002) Hearing after congenital deafness: central auditory plasticity and sensory deprivation. Cerebral Cortex 12:797–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kral A, Hartmann R, Tillein J, Heid S, and Klinke R (2001) Delayed maturation and sensitive periods in the auditory cortex. Audiology & Neurootology 6:346–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kral A, Hartmann R, Tillein J, Heid S, and Klinke R (2000) Congenital auditory deprivation reduces synaptic activity within the auditory cortex in a layer-specific manner. Cerebral Cortex 10:714–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kral A, Schroder JH, Klinke R, and Engel AK (2003) Absence of cross-modal reorganization in the primary auditory cortex of congenitally deaf cats. Experimental Brain Research 153:605–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Kral A, Tillein J, Hubka P, Schiemann D, Heid S, Hartmann R, and Engel AK (2009). Spatiotemporal patterns of cortical activity with bilateral cochlear implants in congenital deafness. Journal of Neuroscience 29:811–827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kral A, Tillein J, Heid S, Hartmann R, and Klinke R (2005) Postnatal cortical development in congenital auditory deprivation. Cerebral Cortex 15:552–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kral A, Tillein J, Heid S, Klinke R, and Hartmann R (2006b) Cochlear implants: cortical plasticity in congenital deprivation. Progress in Brain Research 157:283–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Krmpotic-Nemanic J, Kostovic I, Kelovic Z, and Nemanic D (1980) Development of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) staining in human fetal auditory cortex. Acta Otolaryngologica 89:388–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Krmpotic-Nemanic J, Kostovic I, Kelovic Z, Nemanic D, and Mrzljak L (1983) Development of the human fetal auditory cortex: growth of afferent fibres. Acta Anatomica (Basel) 116:69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Krmpotic-Nemanic J, Kostovic I, Nemanic D, and Kelovic Z (1979) The laminar organization of the prospective auditory cortex in the human fetus (11–13.5 weeks of gestation). Acta Otolaryngologica 87:241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Krmpotic-Nemanic J, Kostovic I, Vidic Z, Nemanic D, and Kostovic-Knezevic L (1987) Development of Cajal-Retzius cells in the human auditory cortex. Acta Otolaryngologica 103:477–480.Google Scholar
  131. Kruska D (1993) Evidence of decrease in brain size in ranch mink, Mustela vison f. dom., during subadult postnatal ontogenesis. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 41:303–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kudoh T, Wilson SW, and Dawid IB (2002) Distinct roles for Fgf, Wnt and retinoic acid in posteriorizing the neural ectoderm. Development 129:4335–4346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kuhl PK (2004) Early language acquisition: cracking the speech code. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5:831–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Kujala T, Alho K, Huotilainen M, Ilmoniemi RJ, Lehtokoski A, Leinonen A, Rinne T, Salonen O, Sinkkonen J, Standertskjold-Nordenstam CG, and Näätänen R (1997) Electrophysiological evidence for cross-modal plasticity in humans with early- and late-onset blindness. Psychophysiology 34:213–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kujala T, Alho K, and Näätänen R (2000) Cross-modal reorganization of human cortical functions. Trends in Neurosciences 23:115–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kushnerenko E, Ceponiene R, Balan P, Fellman V, Huotilainen M, and Näätänen R (2002) Maturation of the auditory event-related potentials during the first year of life. Neuroreport 13:47–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lakatos P, Chen CM, O’Connell MN, Mills A, and Schroeder CE (2007) Neuronal oscillations and multisensory interaction in primary auditory cortex. Neuron 53:279–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Larsen DD, Luu JD, Burns ME, and Krubitzer L (2009) What are the effects of severe visual impairment on the cortical organization and connectivity of primary visual cortex? Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 3:30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lee KJ and Jessell TM (1999) The specification of dorsal cell fates in the vertebrate central nervous system. Annual Reviews of Neuroscience 22:261–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Levanen S, Jousmaki V, and Hari R (1998) Vibration-induced auditory-cortex activation in a congenitally deaf adult. Current Biology 8:869–872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Lewis TL and Maurer D (2005) Multiple sensitive periods in human visual development: evidence from visually deprived children. Developmental Psychobiology 46:163–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Lippe WR (1994) Rhythmic spontaneous activity in the developing avian auditory system. Journal of Neuroscience 14:1486–1495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Locke JL (1997) A theory of neurolinguistic development. Brain and Language 58:265–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Lomber SG, Meredith A, and Kral A (2010) Cross-modal plasticity in specific auditory areas underlies visual compensations in deaf. Nature Neuroscience 13:1421–1427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. LoTurco JJ, Blanton MG, and Kriegstein AR (1991) Initial expression and endogenous activation of NMDA channels in early neocortical development. Journal of Neuroscience 11:792–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Lu W and Constantine-Paton M (2004) Eye opening rapidly induces synaptic potentiation and refinement. Neuron 43:237–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Luskin MB and Shatz CJ (1985) Studies of the earliest generated cells of the cat’s visual cortex: cogeneration of subplate and marginal zones. Journal of Neuroscience 5:1062–1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Maffei A, Nataraj K, Nelson SB, and Turrigiano GG (2006) Potentiation of cortical inhibition by visual deprivation. Nature 443:81–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Maffei A, Nelson SB, and Turrigiano GG (2004) Selective reconfiguration of layer 4 visual cortical circuitry by visual deprivation. Nature Neuroscience 7:1353–1359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Majdan M and Miller FD (1999) Neuronal life and death decisions: functional antagonism between the Trk and p75 neurotrophin receptors. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 17:153–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mallamaci A, Muzio L, Chan CH, Parnavelas J, and Boncinelli E (2000) Area identity shifts in the early cerebral cortex of Emx2 / mutant mice. Nature Neuroscience 3:679–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Manuel M and Price DJ (2005) Role of Pax6 in forebrain regionalization. Brain Research Bulletin 66:387–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Mao Y-T, Hua T-M, and Pallas SL (2007) Cross-modal ferret auditory cortex contains both auditory and visual representations. Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, p. 36.2.Google Scholar
  154. Mao Y-T and Pallas SL (2009) Compensation and compromise of cortical function after neonatal midbrain damage. Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, p. 810.2.Google Scholar
  155. Marin-Padilla M (1995) Prenatal development of fibrous (white matter), protoplasmic (gray matter), and layer I astrocytes in the human cerebral cortex: a Golgi study. Journal of Comparative Neurology 357:554–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Marin-Padilla M (1992) Ontogenesis of the pyramidal cell of the mammalian neocortex and developmental cytoarchitectonics: a unifying theory. Journal of Comparative Neurology 321:223–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Marin-Padilla M (1970) Prenatal and early postnatal ontogenesis of the human motor cortex: a Golgi study. I. The sequential development of the cortical layers. Brain Research 23:167–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Marin-Padilla M and Marin-Padilla TM (1982) Origin, prenatal development and structural organization of layer I of the human cerebral (motor) cortex. A Golgi study. Anatomy & Embryology (Berlin) 164:161–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Martin BA, Shafer VL, Morr ML, Kreuzer JA, and Kurtzberg D (2003) Maturation of mismatch negativity: a scalp current density analysis. Ear and Hearing 24:463–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. McConnell SK (1995) Strategies for the generation of neuronal diversity in the developing central nervous system. Journal of Neuroscience 15:6987–6998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. McMullen NT, Goldberger B, and Glaser EM (1988) Postnatal development of lamina III/IV nonpyramidal neurons in rabbit auditory cortex: quantitative and spatial analyses of Golgi-impregnated material. Journal of Comparative Neurology 278:139–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Mehler J, Jusczyk P, Lambertz G, Halsted N, Bertoncini J, and Amiel-Tison C (1988) A precursor of language acquisition in young infants. Cognition 29:143–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Meyer G, Schaaps JP, Moreau L, and Goffinet AM (2000) Embryonic and early fetal development of the human neocortex. Journal of Neuroscience 20:1858–1868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Miller MW (1988) Development of projection and local circuit neurons in neocortex. In: Peters A and Jones EG (eds). Cerebral Cortex, volume 7, Development and Maturation of Cerebral Cortex. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 133–175.Google Scholar
  165. Molliver ME, Kostovic I, and Van der Loos H (1973) The development of synapses in cerebral cortex of the human fetus. Brain Research 50:403–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Molnar Z, Higashi S, and Lopez-Bendito G (2003) Choreography of early thalamocortical development. Cerebral Cortex 13:661–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Moore DR and Irvine DRF (1979) The development of some peripheral and central auditory responses in the neonatal cat. Brain Research 163:49–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Moore JK and Guan YL (2001) Cytoarchitectural and axonal maturation in human auditory cortex. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology 2:297–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Moore JK, Perazzo LM, and Braun A (1995) Time course of axonal myelination in the human brainstem auditory pathway. Hearing Research 87:21–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Moore JK, Ponton CW, Eggermont JJ, Wu BJ, and Huang JQ (1996) Perinatal maturation of the auditory brain stem response: changes in path length and conduction velocity. Ear and Hearing 17:411–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Morest DK (1969a) The differentiation of cerebral dendrites: a study of the post-migratory neuroblast in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. Zeitschrift für Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte 128:271–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Morest DK (1969b) The growth of dendrites in the mammalian brain. Zeitschrift für Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte 128:290–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Mrsic-Flogel TD, Schnupp JWH, and King AJ (2003) Acoustic factors govern developmental sharpening of spatial tuning in the auditory cortex. Nature Neuroscience 6:981–988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Nakahara H, Zhang LI, and Merzenich MM (2004) Specialization of primary auditory cortex processing by sound exposure in the “critical period”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101:7170–7174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Naruse I and Keino H (1995) Apoptosis in the developing CNS. Progress in Neurobiology 47:135–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Neville HJ (1990) Intermodal competition and compensation in development. Evidence from studies of the visual system in congenitally deaf adults. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 608:71–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Neville HJ, Mills DL, and Lawson DS (1992) Fractionating language: different neural subsystems with different sensitive periods. Cerebral Cortex 2:244–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Nishimura H, Hashikawa K, Doi K, Iwaki T, Watanabe Y, Kusuoka H, Nishimura T, and Kubo T (1999) Sign language ‘heard’ in the auditory cortex. Nature 397:116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. O’Kusky J and Colonnier M (1982a) Postnatal changes in the number of neurons and synapses in the visual cortex (area 17) of the macaque monkey: a stereological analysis in normal and monocularly deprived animals. Journal of Comparative Neurology 210:291–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. O’Kusky J and Colonnier M (1982b) A laminar analysis of the number of neurons, glia, and synapses in the adult cortex (area 17) of adult macaque monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology 210:278–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. O’Kusky JR (1985) Synapse elimination in the developing visual cortex: a morphometric analysis in normal and dark-reared cats. Brain Research 354:81–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Ohlrich ES, Barnet AB, Weiss IP, and Shanks BL (1978) Auditory evoked potential development in early childhood: a longitudinal study. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 44:411–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Oppenheim RW (1991) Cell death during development of the nervous system. Annual Reviews in Neuroscience 14:453–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Oray S, Majewska A, and Sur M (2004) Dendritic spine dynamics are regulated by monocular deprivation and extracellular matrix degradation. Neuron 44:1021–1030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Pallas SL (2001) Intrinsic and extrinsic factors that shape neocortical specification. Trends in Neurosciences 24:417–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Pallas SL (2005) Pre- and postnatal sensory experience shapes functional architecture in the brain. In: Hopkins B and Johnson SP (eds). Advances in Infancy Research, volume 14, Prenatal Development of Postnatal Functions. Praeger, Westport, pp. 1–30.Google Scholar
  187. Pallas SL (2007) Compensatory innervation in development and evolution. In: Kaas J, Striedter GF, and Rubenstein JLR (eds). Evolution of Nervous Systems, volume 1, Theories, Development, and Invertebrates. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp. 153–168.Google Scholar
  188. Pallas SL, Gilmour SM, and Finlay BL (1988) Control of cell number in the developing neocortex. I. Effects of early tectal ablation. Brain Research 471:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Pallas SL, Littman T, and Moore DRF (1999) Cross-modal reorganization of callosal connectivity without altering thalamocortical projections. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96:8751–8756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Pallas SL, Roe AW, and Sur M (1990) Visual projections induced into the auditory pathway of ferrets. I. Novel inputs to primary auditory cortex (AI) from the LP/pulvinar complex and the topography of the MGN-AI projection. Journal of Comparative Neurology 298:50–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Pallas SL and Sur M (1993) Visual projections induced into the auditory pathway of ferrets: II. Corticocortical connections of primary auditory cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 337:317–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Pallas SL, Wenner P, Gonzalez-Islas C, Fagiolini M, Razak KA, Kim G, Sanes D, and Roerig B (2006) Developmental plasticity of inhibitory circuitry. Journal of Neuroscience 26:10358–10361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Pasman JW, Rotteveel JJ, Maassen B, and Visco YM (1999) The maturation of auditory cortical evoked responses between (preterm) birth and 14 years of age. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology 3:79–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Paus T, Zijdenbos A, Worsley K, Collins DL, Blumenthal J, Giedd JN, Rapoport JL, and Evans AC (1999) Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. Science 283:1908–1911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Payne B, Pearson HE, and Cornwell P (1988a) Development of visual and auditory cortical connections in the cat. In: Peters A and Jones EG (eds). Cerebral Cortex, volume 7, Development and Maturation of Cerebral Cortex. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 309–389.Google Scholar
  196. Payne BR (1992) Development of the auditory cortex. In: Romand R (ed). Development of Auditory and Vestibular Systems, volume 2. Elsevier Science Publishers Amsterdam, pp. 357–390.Google Scholar
  197. Payne BR, Pearson HE, and Cornwell P (1988b) Neocortical connections in fetal cats. Neuroscience Research 5, 513–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Pearlman AL (1985) The visual cortex of the normal mouse and the reeler mutant. In: Peters A and Jones EG (eds). Cerebral Cortex, volume 3, Visual Cortex. New York, Plenum, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  199. Pena M, Maki A, Kovacic D, Dehaene-Lambertz G, Koizumi H, Bouquet F, and Mehler J (2003) Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:11702–11705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Penhune VB, Cismaru R, Dorsaint-Pierre R, Petitto LA, and Zatorre RJ (2003) The morphometry of auditory cortex in the congenitally deaf measured using MRI. NeuroImage 20:1215–1225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Petitto LA, Zatorre RJ, Gauna K, Nikelski EJ, Dostie D, and Evans AC (2000) Speech-like cerebral activity in profoundly deaf people processing signed languages: implications for the neural basis of human language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97:13961–13966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Pienkowski M and Harrison RV (2005) Tone frequency maps and receptive fields in the developing chinchilla auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 93:454–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Ponton CW, Don M, Eggermont JJ, Waring MD, Kwong B, and Masuda A (1996a) Auditory system plasticity in children after long periods of complete deafness. Neuroreport 8:61–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Ponton CW, Don M, Eggermont JJ, Waring MD, and Masuda A (1996b) Maturation of human cortical auditory function: differences between normal-hearing children and children with cochlear implants. Ear and Hearing 17:430–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Ponton CW and Eggermont JJ (2001) Of kittens and kids: altered cortical maturation following profound deafness and cochlear implant use. Audiology & Neurootology 6:363–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Ponton CW, Eggermont JJ, Kwong B, and Don M (2000) Maturation of human central auditory system activity: evidence from multi-channel evoked potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology 111:220–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Pratt T, Quinn JC, Simpson TI, West JD, Mason JO, and Price DJ (2002) Disruption of early events in thalamocortical tract formation in mice lacking the transcription factors Pax6 or Foxg1. Journal of Neuroscience 22:8523–8531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Price DJ and Willshaw DJ (2000) Mechanisms of Cortical Development. Oxford University Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Quinlan EM, Olstein DH, and Bear MF (1999a) Bidirectional, experience-dependent regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit composition in the rat visual cortex during postnatal development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96:12876–12880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Quinlan EM, Philpot BD, Huganir RL, and Bear MF (1999b) Rapid, experience-dependent expression of synaptic NMDA receptors in visual cortex in vivo. Nature Neuroscience 2:352–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Raggio MW and Schreiner CE (2003) Neuronal responses in cat primary auditory cortex to electrical cochlear stimulation: IV. Activation pattern for sinusoidal stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology 89:3190–3204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Rakic P (1977) Prenatal development of the visual system in rhesus monkey. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London, Series B: Biological Sciences 278:245–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Rakic P (1972) Mode of cell migration to the superficial layers of fetal monkey neocortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 145:61–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Rauschecker JP (1995) Compensatory plasticity and sensory substitution in the cerebral cortex. Trends in Neurosciences 18:36–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Rittenhouse CD, Shouval HZ, Paradiso MA, and Bear MF (1999) Monocular deprivation induces homosynaptic long-term depression in visual cortex. Nature 397:347–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Robertson RT, Mostamand F, Kageyama GH, Gallardo KA, and Yu J (1991) Primary auditory cortex in the rat: transient expression of acetylcholinesterase activity in developing geniculocortical projections. Developmental Brain Research 58:81–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Roe AW, Garraghty PE, Esguerra M, and Sur M (1993) Experimentally induced visual projections to the auditory thalamus in ferrets: evidence for a W cell pathway. Journal of Comparative Neurology 334:263–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Roe AW, Pallas SL, Hahm JO, and Sur M (1990) A map of visual space induced in primary auditory cortex. Science 250:818–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Roe AW, Pallas SL, Kwon YH, and Sur M (1992) Visual projections routed to the auditory pathway in ferrets: receptive fields of visual neurons in primary auditory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 12:3651–3664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Romand R (1997) Modification of tonotopic representation in the auditory system during development. Progress in Neurobiology 51:1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Rotteveel JJ (1992) Development of brainstem, middle latency and cortical auditory evoked responses in the human. In: Romand R (ed). Development of Auditory and Vestibular Systems, Volume 2. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 321–356.Google Scholar
  222. Ruben RJ (1997) A time frame of critical/sensitive periods of language development. Acta Oto-Laryngologica 117:202–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Rubenstein JLR (2010) Development of the cerebral cortex: implications for neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02307.xPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Sanes DH and Walsh EJ (1998) The Development of Central Auditory Processing. In: Rubel EW, Popper AN, and Fay RR (eds). Springer Handbook of Auditory Research, volume 9, Development of the Auditory System. Springer, New York, pp. 271–314.Google Scholar
  225. Sasai Y and De Robertis EM (1997) Ectodermal patterning in vertebrate embryos. Developmental Biology 182:5–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Schneider GE (1973) Early lesions of superior colliculus: factors affecting the formation of abnormal retinal projections. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 8:73–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Schreiner CE and Mendelson JR (1990) Functional topography of cat primary auditory cortex: distribution of integrated excitation. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:1442–1459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Schreiner CE and Sutter ML (1992) Topography of excitatory bandwidth in cat primary auditory cortex: single-neuron versus multiple-neuron recordings. Journal of Neurophysiology 68:1487–1502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Schroeder CE, Lindsley RW, Specht C, Marcovici A, Smiley JF, and Javitt DC (2001) Somatosensory input to auditory association cortex in the macaque monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 85:1322–1327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Schulte FJ, Stennert E, Wulbrand H, Eichborn W, and Lenard HG (1977) The ontogeny of sensory perception in preterm infants. European Journal of Pediatrics 126:211–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Sedlacek J (1976) Foetal and neonatal development of evoked responses in guinea-pig auditory cortex. Physiologica Bohemoslovaca 25:13–21.Google Scholar
  232. Sermasi E, Tropea D, and Domenici L (1999) Long term depression is expressed during postnatal development in rat visual cortex: a role for visual experience. Developmental Brain Research 113:61–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Shankle WR, Romney AK, Landing BH, and Hara J (1998) Developmental patterns in the cytoarchitecture of the human cerebral cortex from birth to 6 years examined by correspondence analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95:4023–4028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Sharma A, Dorman MF, and Spahr AJ (2002a) A sensitive period for the development of the central auditory system in children with cochlear implants: implications for age of implantation. Ear & Hearing 23:532–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Sharma A, Dorman MF, and Kral A (2005) The influence of a sensitive period on central auditory development in children with unilateral and bilateral cochlear implants. Hearing Research 203:134–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Sharma A, Dorman MF, and Spahr AJ (2002b) Rapid development of cortical auditory evoked potentials after early cochlear implantation. Neuroreport 13:1365–1368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Sharma A, Kraus N, McGee TJ, and Nicol TG (1997) Developmental changes in P1 and N1 central auditory responses elicited by consonant-vowel syllables. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 104:540–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Sharma J, Angelucci A, and Sur M (2000) Induction of visual orientation modules in auditory cortex. Nature 404:841–847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Shatz CJ (1990) Impulse activity and the patterning of connections during CNS development. Neuron 5:745–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Shatz CJ and Luskin MB (1986) The relationship between the geniculocortical afferents and their cortical target cells during development of the cat’s primary visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 6:3655–3668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Shimamura K, Martinez S, Puelles L, and Rubenstein JLR (1997) Patterns of gene expression in the neural plate and neural tube subdivide the embryonic forebrain into transverse and longitudinal domains. Developmental Neuroscience 19:88–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Shuler MG and Bear MF (2006) Reward timing in the primary visual cortex. Science 311:1606–1609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Stewart DL and Starr A (1970) Absence of visually influenced cells in auditory cortex of normal and congenitally deaf cats. Experimental Neurology 28:525–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Sur M, Garraghty PE, and Roe AW (1988) Experimentally induced visual projections into auditory thalamus and cortex. Science 242:1437–1441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Sur M and Rubenstein JLR (2005) Patterning and plasticity of the cerebral cortex. Science 310:805–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Sutor B (2002) Neurogenesis and maturation of synaptic circuitry in the developing cortex. In: Hohmann CF (ed). Cortical Development. Springer, Berlin, pp. 53–73.Google Scholar
  247. Tillein J, Hubka P, Syed E, Hartmann R, Engel AK, and Kral A (2010) Cortical representation of interaural time difference in congenital deafness. Cerebral Cortex 20:492–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Trachtenberg JT, Chen BE, Knott GW, Feng G, Sanes JR, Welker E, and Svoboda K (2002) Long-term in vivo imaging of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity in adult cortex. Nature 420:788–794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Trainor L, McFadden M, Hodgson L, Darragh L, Barlow J, Matsos L, and Sonnadara R (2003) Changes in auditory cortex and the development of mismatch negativity between 2 and 6 months of age. International Journal of Psychobiology 51:5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Tritsch NX and Bergles DE (2010) Developmental regulation of spontaneous activity in the Mammalian cochlea. Journal of Neuroscience 30:1539–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Tsumoto T and Suda K (1982) Postnatal development of the corticofugal projection from striate cortex to lateral geniculate nucleus in kittens. Brain Research 256:323–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Uziel D, Garcez P, Lent R, Peuckert C, Niehage R, Weth F, and Bolz J (2006) Connecting thalamus and cortex: the role of ephrins. Anatomical Record 288:135–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Vale C, Juiz JM, Moore DR, and Sanes DH (2004) Unilateral cochlear ablation produces greater loss of inhibition in the contralateral inferior colliculus. European Journal of Neuroscience 20:2133–2140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Vale C and Sanes DH (2002) The effect of bilateral deafness on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic strength in the inferior colliculus. European Journal of Neuroscience 16:2394–2404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Vale C, Schoorlemmer J, and Sanes DH (2003) Deafness disrupts chloride transporter function and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Journal of Neuroscience 23:7516–7524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Valverde F and Facal-Valverde MV (1988) Postnatal development of interstitial (subplate) cells in the white matter of the temporal cortex of kittens: a correlated Golgi and electron microscopic study. Journal of Comparative Neurology 269:168–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. van Zundert B, Yoshii A, and Constantine-Paton M (2004) Receptor compartmentalization and trafficking at glutamate synapses: a developmental proposal. Trends in Neurosciences 27:428–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Vicario-Abejón C, Owens D, McKay R, and Segal M (2002) Role of neurotrophins in central synapse formation and stabilization. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3:965–974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. von Melchner L, Pallas SL, and Sur M (2000) Visual behaviour mediated by retinal projections directed to the auditory pathway. Nature 404:871–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Voyvodic JT (1996) Cell death in cortical development: how much? Why? So what? Neuron 16:693–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Vu DH and Törk I (1992) Differential development of the dual serotoninergic fiber system in the cerebral cortex of the cat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 317:156–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Wallace IF, Gravel JS, McCarton CM, and Ruben RJ (1988) Otitis media and language development at 1 year of age. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 53:245–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Wilkinson F (1986) Eye and brain growth in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Behavioral Brain Research 19:59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Wallace MT, Ramachandran R, and Stein BE (2004) A revised view of sensory cortical parcellation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 101:2167–2172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Windrem MS, de Beur SJ, and Finlay BL (1988) Control of cell number in the developing neocortex. 2. Effects of corpus callosum section. Developmental Brain Research 43:13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Winfield DA (1981) The postnatal development of synapses in the visual cortex of the cat and the effects of eyelid closure. Brain Research 206:166–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Winfield DA (1983) The postnatal development of synapses in the different laminae of the visual cortex in the normal kitten and in kittens with eyelid suture. Brain Research 285:155–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Winkler I, Kushnerenko E, Horvath J, Ceponiene R, Fellman V, Huotilainen M, Näätänen R, and Sussman E (2003) Newborn infants can organize the auditory world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:11812–11815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Wonders CP and Anderson SA (2006) The origin and specification of cortical interneurons. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7:687–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Yakovlev PL and Lecour A-R (1967) The myelogenic cycles of regional maturation of the brain. In: Minkowski A (ed). Regional Development of the Brain in Early Life. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 3–70.Google Scholar
  271. Yan J (2003) Canadian association of neuroscience review: development and plasticity of the auditory cortex. Canadian Journal of Neural Science 30:189–200.Google Scholar
  272. Yoon SO, Casaccia-Bonnefil P, Carter B, and Chao MV (1998) Competitive signaling between TrkA and p75 nerve growth factor receptors determines cell survival. Journal of Neuroscience 18:3273–3281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Yordanova J, Kolev V, Heinrich H, Woerner W, Banaschewski T, and Rothenberger A (2002) Developmental event-related gamma oscillations: effects of auditory attention. European Journal of Neuroscience 16:2214–2224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Yuste R, Nelson DA, Rubin WW, and Katz LC (1995) Neuronal domains in developing neocortex: mechanisms of coactivation. Neuron 14:7–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Yuste R, Peinado A, and Katz LC (1992) Neuronal domains in developing neocortex. Science 257:665–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Zervas M and Walkley SU (1999) Ferret pyramidal cell dendritogenesis: changes in morphology and ganglioside expression during cortical development. Journal of Comparative Neurology 413:429–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Zhang LI, Bao S, and Merzenich MM (2002) Disruption of primary auditory cortex by synchronous auditory inputs during a critical period. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99:2309–2314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Zhang LI, Bao S, and Merzenich MM (2001) Persistent and specific influences of early acoustic environments on primary auditory cortex. Nature Neuroscience 4:1123–1130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Audioneurotechnology and Department of Experimental OtologyENT Clinics, Medical University HannoverFeodor-Lynen-Str. 35Germany
  2. 2.Neuroscience InstituteGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations