Psychosocial Interventions for People with Serious Mental Illness

  • Mike Fleet


There has been acceptance that the experience of those suffering mental illness is ‘fundamentally non-understandable’ (Jaspers, 1959). This is not quite so — it is normal to hallucinate or have ‘odd’ ideas, sometimes (Haddock & Slade, 1996; Kingdon & Turkington, 1994).


Mental Illness Service User Psychosocial Intervention Express Emotion Social Skill Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Atkinson, J. M. & Coia, D. A. (1995) Families Coping with Schizophrenia: a Practitioner’s Guide to Family Groups, London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Barrowclough, C. & Tarrier, N. (1992) Families of Schizophrenic Patients: Cognitive Behavioural Intervention, London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F. & Emery, G. (1979) Cognitive Therapy of Depression, New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  4. Bentall, R. P. (ed.) (1990) Reconstructing Schizophrenia, Routledge: London.Google Scholar
  5. Bentall, R. P., Kinderman, P. & Kaney, S. (1994) The self, attributional processes and abnormal beliefs: towards a model of persecutory delusions, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 331–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Birchwood, N. & Tarrier, N. (eds) (1996) Innovations in the Psychological Management of Schizophrenia: Assessment, Treatment and Services, Chichester: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Birchwood, M., Smith, J. & MacMillan, F. (1989) Predicting relapse in schizophrenia: the development and implementation of an early signs monitoring system using patients and families as observers, Psychological Medicine, 19, 649–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Birchwood, M., Smith, J. & Cochrane, R. (1992) Specific and non-specific effects of educational intervention for families living with schizophrenia: a comparison of three methods, British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 806–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Birchwood, M., Mason, R., MacMillan, J. F. & Healy, J. (1993) Depression, demoralisation and control over illness; a comparison of depressed and non-depressed patients with a chronic psychosis, Psychological Medicine, 23, 387–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, G. W. & Rutter, M. (1966) The measurement of family activities and relationships: a methodological study, Human Relations, 19, 241–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, G. W., Birley, J. L. T. & Wing, J. K. (1972) Influence of family life on the course of schizophrenic disorder, British Journal of Psychiatry, 121, 241–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Carpenter, W. T., Hanlon, T. E., Summerfelt, A. T., Kirkpatrick, B. M., Levine, J. & Buchanan, R. W. (1990) Continuous versus targeted medication in schizophrenic outpatients, American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1138–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Carr, V. (1988) Patients’ techniques for coping with schizophrenia: an exploratory study, British Journal of Medical Psychology, 61, 339–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Collins, M. N., Cull, C. A. & Sireling, L. (1989) Pilot study of persistent auditory hallucinations by modified auditory input, British Medical Journal, 299, 431–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Curson, D. A., Patel, M. & Liddle, P. F. (1988) Psychiatric morbidity of a long-stay hospital population with chronic schizophrenia and implications for future community care, British Medical Journal, 297, 819–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Department of Health (1999) National Service Framework for Mental Health: Modern Standards and Service Models, London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  17. Docherty, J. P., van Kammen, D. P. & Siris, S. G. (1978) Stages of onset of schizophrenic psychosis, American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 420–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Elkin, I., Shea, M. & Watkins, J. (1989) National Institute of Mental Health treatment of depression collaborative treatment programme, Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 971–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fadden, G. (1998) Family intervention, in C. Brooker & J. Repper (eds), Serious Mental Health Problems in the Community: Policy, Practice and Research, London: Bailliere Tindall, 159–83.Google Scholar
  20. Falloon, I. R. H. & Talbot, R. E. (1981) Persistent auditory hallucinations: coping mechanisms and implications for management, Psychological Medicine, 1, 329–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fox, J. & Conroy, P. (2000) Assessing clients’ needs: the semi-structured interview, in C. Gamble & G. Brennan (eds), Working With Serious Mental Illness: A Manual for Clinical Practice, London: Bailliere Tindall, 85–96.Google Scholar
  22. Frith, C. D. (1992) The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia, Hove: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  23. Gaebel, V., Frick, W. & Kopcke, M. (1993) Early neuroleptic intervention in schizophrenia, British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 8–12.Google Scholar
  24. Gamble, C. & Brennan, G. (eds) (2000) Working with Serious Mental Illness: A Manual for Clinical Practice, London: Balliere Tindall/RCN.Google Scholar
  25. Garety, P. A., Kuipers, L., Fowler, D., Chamber, I. F. & Dunn, G. (1994) Cognitive-behaviour therapy for drug-resistant psychosis, British Journal of Medical Psychology, 67, 259–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Garety, P. A., Fowler, D., Kuipers, E., Freeman, D., Dunn, G., Bebbington, P., Hadley, C. & Jones, S. (1997) London-East Anglia randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis: II predictors of outcome, British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 319–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gottesman, I. (1991) Schizophrenia Genesis; the Origin of Madness, Oxford: Freeman.Google Scholar
  28. Haddock, G. & Slade, P. D. (1996) Cognitive-Behavioural Interventions with Psychotic Disorders, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Haddock, G., Bentall, R. P. & Slade, P. D. (1993) Psychological treatment for auditory hallucinations: two case studies, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 21, 335–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haddock, G., McCarron, J., Tarrier, N. & Faragher, E. B. (1999) Scales to measure dimensions of hallucinations and delusions: the Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scales (PSYRATS), Psychological Medicine, 29, 879–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Halford, W. & Hayes, R. (1991) Psychological rehabilitation of chronic schizophrenic patients: recent findings on social skills training and family psychoeducation, Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 23–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Halford, W. & Hayes, R. (1995) Social skills in schizophrenia: assessing the relationship between social skills, psychopathology and community functioning, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 30, 14–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hertz, M. & Melville, C. (1980) Relapse in schizophrenia, American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 801–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoffman, R. E. (1986) Verbal hallucinations and language production processes in schizophrenia, The Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 9, 503–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hogarty, G. E., Anderson, C. M., Reiss, D. J., Kornblith, S. J., Greenwald, D. P., Javan, C. D. & Madonia, M. (1986) Family psychoeducational, social skills training and maintenance chemotherapy in the aftercare of schizophrenia: I: one year effects of a controlled study on relapse and expressed emotion, Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 633–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hogarty, G. E., Anderson, C. M., Reiss, D. J., Kornblith, S. J., Greenwald, D. P., Ulrich, R. F. & Carter, M. (1991) Family psychoeducational, social skills training and maintenance chemotherapy in the aftercare of schizophrenia: II: two year effects of a controlled study on relapse and adjustment, Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 340–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Jaspers, K. (1959) General Psychopathology, Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Jolley, A. G., Hirsch, S. T., McRink, A. & Machanda, R. (1989) Trial of brief intermittent neuroleptic prophylaxis for selected schizophrenia outpatients: clinical outcome at one year, British Medical Journal, 298, 985–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Jolley, A. G., Hirsch, S. T., McRink, A. & Wilson, L. (1990) Trial of brief intermittent neuroleptic prophylaxis for selected schizophrenia outpatients: clinical and social outcome at two years, British Medical Journal, 301, 837–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Kane, J. M. & McGlashan, T. H. (1995) Treatment of schizophrenia, Lancet, 346, 820–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kavanagh, D. (1992) Recent developments in expressed emotion and schizophrenia, British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 601–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kemp, R., Hayward, P. & David, A. (1997) Compliance Therapy Manual, London: Maudsley Hospital.Google Scholar
  43. Kingdon, D. G. & Turkington, D. (1994) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy of Schizophrenia, New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  44. Kingdon, D. G., Tyrer, P. & Murphy, S. (1996) The Nottingham Study of neurotic disorder: influence of cognitive therapists on outcome, British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 93–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kottgen, C., Sonnichsen, I., Mollenhauer, K. & Jurth, R. (1984) Group therapy with families of schizophrenic patients: results of the Hamburg Camberwell Family Interview study III, International Journal of Family Psychiatry, 5, 83–94.Google Scholar
  46. Krawiecka, M., Goldberg, D. & Vaughan, M. (1977) A standardised psychiatric assessment scale for rating chronic psychotic patients, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 55, 299–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Leff, J. & Vaughan, C. (1985) Expressed Emotion in Families: its Significance for Mental Illness, New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  48. Leff, J., Berkowitz, R., Shavit, N., Strachan, A., Glass, I. & Vaughan, C. (1989) Atrial of family therapy versus a relatives’ group for schizophrenia, British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 58–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Leff, J., Berkowitz, R., Shavit, N., Strachan, A., Glass, I. & Vaughan, C. (1990) Atrial of family therapy versus a relatives’ group for schizophrenia: two year follow-up, British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 571–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Linszen, D., Lenior, M., de Haan, L., Dingmans, P. & Gersons, B. (1998) Early intervention, untreated psychosis and the course of early schizophrenia, British Journal of Psychiatry, 172(suppl33), 84–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. McCandless-Glincher, L., McKnight, S., Hamera, E., Smith, B. L., Peterson, K. & Plumlee, A. A. (1986) Use of symptoms by schizophrenics to monitor and regulate their illness, Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 37, 929–33.Google Scholar
  52. Miller, W. & Rollnick, S. (1991) Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People to Change Addictive Behaviour, New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  53. Mueser, K. T., Bellack, A. & Blanchard, J. (1992) Comorbidity of schizophrenia and substance abuse: implications for treatment, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 845–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Nelson, H. (1997) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy with Schizophrenia, Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.Google Scholar
  55. Overall, J. E. & Gorham, D. R. (1962) The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Psychological Reports, 10, 799–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Perkins, R. & Repper, J. (1998) Softly, Softly, Mental Health Care, 2(2), 70.Google Scholar
  57. Pharoah, F. M., Mari, J. J. & Streiner, D. (2002) Family intervention, Cochrane Database Systematic Review (4).Google Scholar
  58. Richards, D. & McDonald, B. (1990) Behavioural Psychotherapy: A Pocket Book for Nurses, Oxford: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  59. Romme, M. A. J. & Escher, A. D. M. A. C. (1989) Hearing voices, Schizophrenia Bulletin, 15, 209–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (1998) Keys to Engagement, London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health.Google Scholar
  61. Sellwood, W., Haddock, G., Tarrier, N. & Yusupoff, L. (1994) Advances in the psychological management of positive symptoms of schizophrenia, International Review of Psychiatry, 6, 201–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shepherd, M., Watt, D., Falloon, I. & Smeeton, N. (1989) The natural history of schizophrenia: a five-year follow-up in a representative sample of schizophrenics, Psychological Medicine, Monograph Supplement 15.Google Scholar
  63. Smith, T. E., Bellack, A. S. & Liberman, R. P. (1996) Social skills training for schizophrenia: review and future directions, Clinical Psychology Review, 16(7), 599–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tarrier, N. (1987) An investigation of residual psychotic symptoms in discharged schizophrenic patients, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26, 141–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Tarrier, N., Barrowclough, C. & Vaughan, K. (1988) The community management of schizophrenia: a controlled trial of behavioural intervention with families to reduce relapse, British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 532–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Tarrier, N., Barrowclough, C. & Vaughan, K. (1989) Community management of schizophrenia: a two year follow-up of a behavioural intervention with families, British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 625–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Tarrier, N., Harwood, S., Yusopoff, L., Beckett, R. & Baker, A. (1990) Coping Strategy Enhancement (CSE): a method of treating residual schizophrenic symptoms, Behavioural Psychotherapy, 18, 283–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tarrier, N., Lowson, K. & Barrowclough, C. (1991) Some aspects of family interventions in schizophrenia. II: financial considerations, British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 481–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Tarrier, N., Beckett, R., Harwood, S., Baker, A. & Yusopoff, L. (1993) Atrial of two cognitive-behavioural methods of treating drug-resistant residual psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients I: outcome, British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 524–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Tarrier, N., Yusupoff, L., Kinney, C., McCarthey, E., Gledhill, A., Haddock, G. & Morris, J. (1998) Randomised controlled trial of intensive cognitive behaviour therapy for patients with chronic schizophrenia, British Medical Journal, 317, 303–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Vaughan, C. & Leff, J. P. (1976) The influence of family and social factors on the course of psychiatric illness, British Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 125–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Warner, R. (1994) Recovery from Schizophrenia: Psychiatry and Political Economy, (2nd edn), London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Zubin, J. & Spring, B. (1977) Vulnerability: a new view of schizophrenia, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 260–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Mike Fleet 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mike Fleet

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations