• Gertrude S. Williams
  • Jo Ann Ooiman Robinson
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Oral History book series (PSOH)


In 1930, 70 percent of the black residents of Philadelphia were migrants, and the largest number of them (18.9 percent) had come from Virginia.1 Among them were Gertrude Williams’s father, Horace Williams, her mother, Mamie Wallace Williams, and six of her siblings. Gertrude made seven; an eighth child would be born in Philadelphia. Horace’s youngest sister, Emma, also came with them. Their exact reasons for leaving Orange County, Virginia we do not know. But even a cursory examination of that locale’s history, social structure, and economy is suggestive.


Student Teacher Birth Certificate Black Student White People Orange County 
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Copyright information

© Gertrude S. Williams and Jo Ann Ooiman Robinson 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gertrude S. Williams
  • Jo Ann Ooiman Robinson

There are no affiliations available

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