Beginning in the late 1960s, the nation’s cities were inundated with what was seen as an unprecedented wave of criminal violence. In San Francisco, the average annual homicide rate rose to 18.5 per 100,000 population by the latter half of the 1970s—up from 5.9 in an equivalent period in the early 1960s. In order to understand the criminal disorders plaguing their cities, many urban scholars began to look in earnest at violence in America’s past. Over the next 40 years the scholars produced a myriad of studies probing the circumstances and causes of criminal violence. Some looked to the Southern United States and its supposed culture of violence, both before and after the Civil War. Others explored criminal violence in the mining camps and cow towns of the nation’s fabled “Wild West”. Still others studied the densely populated cities of the nineteent-century urban East.
KeywordsBurning Migration Depression Europe Penicillin
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