Red, Brown, and Yellow Power in “Occupied America”

  • Van Gosse


The black freedom movement has been incorporated into the official history of America. Politicians routinely invoke it, as do advertisers. Students learn about Dr. King and Rosa Parks in grade school, and most people know who Malcolm X was, even if they do not know much about him. Streets in hundreds of cities and towns are named for these famous Americans. Many historians and movement veterans feel that a sanitized version of the black struggle is taught, such as the ubiquitous posters for Black History Month in fast-food restaurants, but even this popular narrative is a vast improvement over how black people were rendered invisible while Jim Crow prevailed until the 1960s.


White Supremacy Indian Affair Cultural Nationalism Pine Ridge Asian American Study 
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A Selected Bibliography

  1. On the Native American struggle, there is an excellent and accessible narrative inGoogle Scholar
  2. Paul Chatt Smith and Robert Allen Warrior, Like a Hurricane: The Indian Movement from Alcatraz to Wounded Knee (New York: The New Press, 1996). It is fleshed out by the articles and documents in the definitive collection edited byGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., Joane Nagel and Troy Johnson, Red Power: The American Indians’ Fight for Freedom, 2nd ed. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999). For a contemporary sense of this movement’s early days, before AIM, seeGoogle Scholar
  4. Stan Steiner, The New Indians (New York: Harper and Row, 1967) helpful.Google Scholar
  5. Carlos Munoz, Jr., Youth, Identity, Power: The Chicano Movement (London: Verso, 1989) is a politically acute account by a veteran who is also a scholar. More recently,).Google Scholar
  6. Ernesto Chavez, “Mi Raza Primero!” (My People First!): Nationalism, Identity, and Insurgency in the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles, 1966–1978 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002) offers the first focused local study of Chicanismo from a historian’s perspective. Other scholarship, mostly by political scientists, includesGoogle Scholar
  7. Armando Navarro, La Raza Unida Party: A Chicano Challenge to the U.S. Two-Party Dictatorship (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000)Google Scholar
  8. Ignacio M. Garcia, Chicanismo: The Forging of a Militant Ethos Among Mexican Americans (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1997), andGoogle Scholar
  9. Juan Gomez-Quinones, Chicano Politics: Reality and Promise, 1940–1990 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1990).Google Scholar
  10. For the Puerto Rican movement, start withGoogle Scholar
  11. Andres Torres and Jose E. Velazquez, eds., The Puerto Rican Movement: Voices from the Diaspora (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998). The arresting photo-diaryGoogle Scholar
  12. Michael Abramson, Palante, Young Lords Party (New York: McGraw Hill, 1971) is a great accompaniment, however, to understanding this movement that remains little known outside of the New York area. The major primer to the Asian American movement is a collection of documents and reflections, edited byGoogle Scholar
  13. Steve Louie and Glenn Omatsu, Asian Americans: The Movement and the Moment (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  14. William Wei, The Asian American Movement (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993) is a scholarly summary, though it misses many major developments.Google Scholar

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© Van Gosse 2005

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  • Van Gosse

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