The year 1859 illustrated the fragility of republic in America and reminded émigré Frenchmen of their loss in 1851. Liberal and radical factions in both societies sought social progress and fought conservative forces over the nature of the political fabric and labor structure. The Harper’s Ferry raid and John Brown’s trial, execution, and mythification in the European radical political imagination rehearsed their own recent failures and reinforced a faith in redemptive political gestures, even if immediately futile.
KeywordsMercury Europe Arsenic Amid Tuberculosis
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