The Age of Paradox: the Anti-revolutionary Revolutions of 1989–91

  • Richard Sakwa
Part of the Themes in Focus book series (TIF)


The end of the revolution has been proposed many times before, and such announcements have invariably proved premature. As Fred Halliday notes, the year 1989 gave the idea of revolution a ‘special contradictory confirmation’: it marked the 200th anniversary ‘of the emergence of the modern, and modernist, concept of revolution during the French revolution’; but it was a year that began ‘with sage warnings on how revolution was no longer a relevant concept, [but] it ended with the collapse of the communist regimes in a process that should, by all but the most dogmatically teleological of criteria, be termed “revolutionary”’.2 These were indeed revolutions, but revolutions of a special type.


Civil Society French Revolution Russian Revolution Communist Revolution Moral Absolutism 
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Notes and References

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© Richard Sakwa 2001

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  • Richard Sakwa

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