The First World War

  • Spencer Tucker
Part of the Problems in Focus Series book series (PFS)


In August 1914 what had been threatened half a dozen times over the previous decade actually occurred: a war began in Europe that involved the great powers and soon became world-wide. The war was hardly a surprise, for Europe was armed to the teeth. In order to maintain the largest armies possible with the latest military equipment, governments had strained their limited national resources, often at the expense of rising popular demands for social services. The continent as a whole was never as ready for war as in 1914.1


Europe Chlorine Flare Turkey Expense 


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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    See David G. Herrmann, The Arming of Europe and the Making of the First World War (Princeton, NJ, 1996 ).Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Bernadotte E. Schmitt and Harold C. Vedeler, The World in the Crucible, 1914–1919 (New York, 1984 ), p. 28.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    Gary P. Cox, ‘Schlieffen Plan’, The European Powers in the First World War, An Encyclopedia. Edited by Spencer C. Tucker (New York, 1996 ), pp. 633–5.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    Gerhard Ritter, The Schlieffen Plan: Critique of a Myth (New York, 1958).Google Scholar
  5. 13.
    See Geoffrey M. Bennett, The Battle of Jutland (Philadelphia, 1964 ).Google Scholar
  6. 14.
    Hubert C. Johnson, Breakthrough! Tactics, Technology, and the Search for Victory on the Western Front in World War I ( Novato, CA, 1994 ), p. 17;Google Scholar
  7. Peter Simkins, World War I. The Western Front (New York, 1991), pp. 87–8.Google Scholar
  8. 16.
    Boyd Dastrup, King of Battle: A Branch History of the US Army’s Field Artillery ( Fort Monroe, VA, 1992 ), pp. 126–9.Google Scholar
  9. 18.
    Philip J. Haythornthwaite, World War One Source Book (London, 1992), p. 181;Google Scholar
  10. David T. Zabecki, Steel Wind. Colonel Georg Bruchm~ller and the Birth of Modern Artillery (Westport, CT, 1995), pp. 7 and 10;Google Scholar
  11. Randal Gray, Chronicle of the First World War (New York, 1991), II: 284.Google Scholar
  12. 20.
    Martin Van Creveld, Supplying War: Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton (London, 1977), p. 110.Google Scholar
  13. 21.
    Robert Gardiner (ed), The Eclipse of the Big Gun. The Warship 1906–45 ( Annapolis, MD, 1992 ), p. 15.Google Scholar
  14. 23.
    For discussion of early submarines see Spencer C. Tucker, Handbook of 19th Century Naval Warfare (Stroud, 2000), pp. 173–185.Google Scholar
  15. 32.
    Theodore Roscoe, On the Seas and in the Skies. A History of the U. S. Navy’s Air Power (New York, 1970), pp. 27–31.Google Scholar
  16. 33.
    Anthony Livesey, The Historical Atlas of World War I (New York, 1994), p. 15.Google Scholar
  17. 35.
    Richard P. Hallion, Rise of Fighter Aircraft 1914–1918 ( Annapolis, MD, 1984 ), pp. 8–13.Google Scholar
  18. 36.
    Lee Kennett, The First Air War, 1914–1918 (New York, 1991), pp. 94 and 170.Google Scholar
  19. 40.
    Raymond H. Fredette, The Sky on Fire. The First Battle of Britain 1917–1918 and the Birth of the Royal Air Force (New York, 1976 ), pp. 157, 221–6.Google Scholar
  20. 41.
    R. D. Layman, Naval Aviation in the First World War. Its Impact and Influence (Annapolis, MD, 1996 ).Google Scholar
  21. 44.
    William Moore, Gas Attack: Chemical Warfare, 1915 to the Present Day (London, 1987), p. 11.Google Scholar
  22. 45.
    William R. Griffiths, The Great War ( Wayne, NJ, 1986 ), p. 67.Google Scholar
  23. 49.
    Augustin M. Prentiss, Chemicals in War (New York, 1937), pp. 661–2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Spencer Tucker 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Spencer Tucker

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