Palm Oil Industry Residues

  • Mynepalli K.C. Sridhar
  • Olugbenga O. AdeOluwa


Oil palm industry generates a large quantity of residues and wastes in the form of empty fruit bunch, palm kernel shells, trunk of the plant, fibre, leaves and others. When palm oil is extracted and processed, it also produces effluents with high organic matter, suspended matter and oil and grease. These wastes cause ecosystem degradation and affects health of the communities. This chapter describes the methods of managing or treating the residues and wastes as these are untapped resources. Some of the byproducts derivable from these wastes when appropriately managed are energy, mulch, compost or organic fertilizer from empty fruit bunches shells and sludges from effluent treatment. Empty fruit bunches and palm kernel shells were successfully converted into compost by enriching with goat manure or poultry manure and were useful in developing oil palm nurseries and other food crops. Biogas and electricity are generated from effluent management, and several biochemicals such as ethanol, fatty acids, waxes and others which could be obtained through application of biotechnology. Palm oil wastes contribute to Green House Gases (GHG) and conversion to energy is a good means of obtaining carbon credit facility for sustainable management. The spent materials are also used in cultivating mushrooms. These technologies find wider application in developing African and Asian countries where oil palm plantations are major economic resource.


Palm oil wastes Energy Mulch Fertilizer Palm kernel shells Elaeis guineensis Jacq 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mynepalli K.C. Sridhar
    • 1
  • Olugbenga O. AdeOluwa
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public HealthUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

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