The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Stream-flows in the Greater Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Basins – A Climate Outlook

  • Md. Rashed ChowdhuryEmail author


The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River system is the third largest freshwater outlet to the world’s oceans; only the Amazon and the Congo River exceed it. This watershed encompasses a number of countries in the South Asian region, including China, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh (Fig. 1).Of these, China contributes solely to the flow of the Brahmaputra, and Nepal to the flow of the Ganges (Nishat and Faisal, 2000).


Wind Anomaly Southern Oscillation Index Late Recession Average Water Level Meridional Wind Anomaly 
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© Capital Publishing Company 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pacific ENSO Applications Climate Center Affiliate Faculty - Urban and Regional PlanningUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA

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