• Pukh Raj Rakhecha
  • Vijay P. Singh


Water, whose importance is rated next to air, is the world’s most precious natural resource and is vital for all forms of life. It generally refers to that part of fresh water which is renewable annually and includes surface water, soil water and underground water. Atmospheric precipitation (rainfall, snowfall, and other forms) constitutes the source of all fresh water on the earth. Rainfall, the primary source of water that occurs as a result of condensation of atmospheric moisture, is governed by the science of meteorology and, therefore, is considered to be one of the most important meteorological elements. Similarly, the occurrence and distribution of rainwater on and beneath the earth’s surface is governed by the science of hydrology and geology. Both meteorology and hydrology are concerned with the hydrologic cycle (also sometimes referred to as water cycle) dealing with the movement and interchange of water between the oceans, the atmosphere and the earth. The striking elements of the hydrologic cycle, which are generally observed and recorded for purposes of water development, are meteorological elements, such as rainfall and evaporation, as well as hydrologic elements of lake and river levels, river flow, infiltration, and ground water.


Southern Hemisphere Saturation Vapor Pressure Summer Solstice Design Flood Latitude Belt 
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Copyright information

© Capital Publishing Company 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pukh Raj Rakhecha
    • 1
  • Vijay P. Singh
    • 2
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Tropical MeteorologyPuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering and Department of Civil & Environmental EngineeringTexas A & M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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