Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Bipolar Disorder Across the Lifespan

  • Nick C. Patel
  • Michael A. Cerullo
  • David E. Fleck
  • Jayasree J. Nandagopal
  • Caleb M. Adler
  • Stephen M. Strakowski
  • Melissa P. DelBello

Abstract

Bipolar disorder, characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and commonly depression, is a debilitating mental illness that affects millions of children, adolescents, and adults worldwide. Individuals with bipolar disorder often exhibit symptomatology found in other psychiatric disorders, which may lead to misdi-agnosis. Approximately half of bipolar patients respond to monotherapy of any single agent and often combinations of medications are necessary in order to achieve optimal mood stabilization. Therefore, strategies to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment modalities are critical to improve the outcome for individuals with bipolar disorder. One such strategy is the identification of biomarkers through the use of neuroimaging techniques, including structural neuroimaging, diffusion tension imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neuroimaging studies in bipolar disorder have furthered our understanding of the neuropathophys-iology of the illness across the lifespan as well as the neurochemical effects of medications commonly used for mood stabilization. In this chapter, we review the existing neuroimaging literature, focusing on anatomical, functional, and biochemical abnormalities observed in individuals with bipolar disorder that may serve as biomarkers for the illness and treatment response. Future neuroimaging research in bipolar disorder should aim to address current methodological limitations and identify reliable biomarkers that may lead to improved diagnostic accuracy and early, targeted treatment interventions in order to improve patient outcome.

Keywords

Bipolar disorder structural neuroimaging diffusion tension imaging functional magnetic resonance imaging magnetic resonance spectroscopy mood stabilizers antipsychotics children adolescents adults 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nick C. Patel
    • 1
  • Michael A. Cerullo
    • 2
  • David E. Fleck
    • 2
  • Jayasree J. Nandagopal
    • 2
  • Caleb M. Adler
    • 2
  • Stephen M. Strakowski
    • 2
  • Melissa P. DelBello
    • 2
  1. 1.Lifesynch; Department of Psychiatry & Health BehaviorMedical College of GeorgiaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Bipolar Disorders Research, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

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