Karyotypic features of the order Hymenoptera are reviewed. Main genetic features of the life cycle, i.e. arrhenotoky (sometimes changed to thelytoky) and haplodiploidy, are discussed. Models of sex determination in Hymenoptera are listed. Diversity of chromosome numbers, including ploidy levels, and general chromosomal morphology in the order are briefly reviewed. Various structural features of mitotic chromosomes (chromosome size, centromere position and centromere index, euchromatic and heterochromatic segments, nucleolus organiser, etc.) including different banding techniques, such as C-, AgNOR-, G- and restriction banding, fluorochrome staining and in situ hybridisation (FISH, chromosome painting) are described. Details of meiosis as well as the structure of meiotic chromosomes of Hymenoptera are reviewed. The diversity of chromosome sets in various hymenopteran taxa (including types of chromosomal rearrangements detected in the order) is shown. Taxonomic and phylogenetic implications of karyotypic analysis of Hymenoptera are described.
KeywordsChromosomes Hymenoptera Karyotype Phylogeny Taxonomy
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