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Liver Cancer pp 451-459 | Cite as

Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma: Mucin 4, a Poor Prognostic Factor

  • Michiyo Higashi
  • Shugo Tamada
  • Kohji Nagata
  • Masamichi Goto
  • Suguru Yonezawa
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Part of the Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis book series (HAYAT, volume 5)

Malignant tumors of the extrahepatic bile ducts are relatively rare, although they are one of the most common causes of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Most tumors of extrahepatic bile ducts are car cinomas, and they can develop at any level of bile duct tree. Extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma (EHBDC) is difficult to treat because most patients with this car cinoma are not surgically resectable at the time of diagnosis despite its small size. A gradual improvement with better prog nosis has been obtained with a combined modality approach consisting of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, but survival rate is still low. A complete surgi cal resection offers the only possibility of cure; however, many patients treated with curative resection have a poor outcome. Our previous immunohistochemical stud ies of EHBDC showed that MUC4 mucin expression is a new independent factor for poor prognosis and predicts the outcome of patients with EHBDC (Tamada et al., 2006), in addition to MUC1 mucin expres sion (Tamada et al., 2002).

Keywords

Bile Duct Common Bile Duct Extrahepatic Bile Duct ErbB2 Expression MUC4 Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michiyo Higashi
    • 1
  • Shugo Tamada
    • 1
  • Kohji Nagata
    • 1
  • Masamichi Goto
    • 1
  • Suguru Yonezawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human Pathology, Field of OncologyKagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesSakuragaokaJapan

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