Liver Cancer pp 249-260 | Cite as

Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Adenomatous Hyperplasia (Dysplastic Nodules): Dynamic Computed Tomography and a Combination of Computed Tomography and Angiography

  • Kenichi Takayasu
Part of the Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis book series (HAYAT, volume 5)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world and responsible for 500,000 deaths globally every year (Parkin et al., 2001). Approximately, 80% of the HCC is related to hepatitis B and/or C virus infection. The prognosis remains poor because of advanced stage of cancer and associated hepatic impairment at diagnosis and high recurrence rate of ~ 80% after surgery (Imamura et al., 2003) or percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) (Koda et al., 2000) in a different segment of the liver. Therefore, early diagnosis is imperative to enable patients to undergo curable therapies. According to the nation-wide biannual report of the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan, HCC accounted for 95% of 19,920 patients with primary liver cancer (Ikai et al., 2005).

With the advancement of imaging modalities, such as helical computed tomography (CT) (Murakami et al., 2001), and high-quality ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, small hepatic nodular lesions as well as small HCC (< 3 cm) have been frequently found in chronic hepatic disease. They include adenomatous hyperplasia (AH) corresponding to low grade dysplastic nodule (DN) proposed by the International Working Party (1995), atypical AH to high grade dysplastic nodule, and early HCC (Sakamoto et al., 1991).


Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Adenomatous Hyperplasia Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia Liver Cancer Study Group Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
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© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenichi Takayasu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyNational Cancer Center HospitalTsukijiJapan

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