Advertisement

Sedimentology

  • Zhifei Liu
  • Wei Huang
  • Jianru Li
  • Pinxian Wang
  • Rujian Wang
  • Kefu Yu
  • Jianxin Zhao
Part of the Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research book series (DPER, volume 13)

The South China Sea (SCS) receives approximately 700 million tons of deposits annually in modern times, including about 80% of terrigenous matters provided by surrounding rivers and 20% of biogenic carbonate and silicates and volcanic ash. A similar scenario has been indentified also in the geological past. Since the early Oligocene, the sea has accumulated about 14.4 thousand trillion tons of deposits, which contain 63% terrigenous matters and 37% biogenic carbonate with negligible biogenic silicates and volcanic materials (Huang 2004). Most of these deposits accumulated on the SCS shelf (43% of total sediment mass) and slope (52%). Such a huge deposition cover makes the SCS an ideal place to study terrigenous input, paleoceanograhy, and regional and global climate evolution as well as sedimentary evolution of the SCS.

Keywords

Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Mass Accumulation Rate Yinggehai Basin Nansha Island Leizhou Peninsula 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acharyya S.K. and Basu P.K. 1993. Toba ash on the Indian subcontinent and its implications for correlation of late Pleistocene alluvium. Quat. Res. 40: 10–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alibert C., Kinsley L., Fallon S.J., McCulloch M.T., Berkelmans R. and McAllister F. 2003. Source of trace element variability in Great Barrier Reef corals affected by the Burdekin flood plumes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67: 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. An Z., Kutzbach J.E., Prell W.L. and Porter S.C. 2001. Evolution of Asian monsoons and phased uplift of the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau since late Miocene time. Nature 411: 62–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bai Z., Zhang G. and Zeng X. 1996. The Geological and Geophysical Comprehensive Research Symposium of the Southeastern Nansha Sea Area. China Univ. Geosci. Press, Wuhan, 89pp (in chinese).Google Scholar
  5. Barron J.A. and Baldauf J.G. 1989. Tertiary cooling steps and paleoproductivity as reflected by diatoms and biosiliceous sediments. In: Berger W.H., Smetacek V.S. and Wefer G. (eds.), Productivity of the Ocean: Present and Past. John Wiley &Sons Limited., S. Bernhard, Dahlem Konferenzen, pp. 341–354.Google Scholar
  6. Bassinot F.C., Beaufort L., Vincent E. and Labeyrie L.D. 1994. Coarse fraction fluctuatiuons in pelagic carbonate sediments from the tropical Indian Ocean: A 1500-kyr record of carbonate dissolution. Paleoceanography 9: 579–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beaufort L., de Garidel-Thoron T., Linsley B., Oppo D. and Buchet N. 2003. Biomass burning and oceanic primary production estimates in the Sulu Sea area over the last 380 kyr and the East Asian monsoon dynamics. Mar. Geol. 201: 53–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beaufort L., de Garidel-Thoron T., Mix A.C. and Pisias N.G. 2001. ENSO-like forcing on oceanic primary production during the late Pleistocene. Science 293: 2440–2444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benayahu Y. and Perkol-Finkel S. 2004. Soft corals (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from southern Taiwan. I. Sarcophyton nanwanensis sp. nov. (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea). Zool. Studies 43: 537–547.Google Scholar
  10. Benayahu Y., Jeng M.S., Perkol-Finkel S. and Dai C.F. 2004. Soft corals (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from southern Taiwan. II. Species diversity and distributional patterns. Zool. Studies 43: 548–560.Google Scholar
  11. Berger W.H. 1982. Increase of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during deglaciation: the coral reef hypothesis. Naturwissenschaften 69(2): 87–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berger W.H., Leckie R.M., Janecek T.R., Stax R. and Takayama T. 1993. Neogene carbonate sedimentation on Ontong Java Plateau: highlights and open questions. Proc. ODP Sci. Results 130: 711–744.Google Scholar
  13. Bian Y., Wang P. and Zheng L. 1992. Deep-water dissolution cycles of late Quaternary planktonic foraminifera in the South China Sea. In: Ye Z. and Wang P. (eds.), Contributions to Late Quaternary Paleoceanography of the South China Sea. Qingdao Ocean Univ. Press, Qingdao, pp. 261–273 (in chinese).Google Scholar
  14. Bluth G.J.S., Doiron S.D., Schnetzler C.C., Krueger A.J. and Walter L.S. 1992. Global tracking of the SO2 clouds from the June 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 19: 151–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bond G., Showers W., Cheseby M., Lotti R., Almasi P., de Menocal P., Priore P., Cullen H., Hajdas I. and Bonani G. 1997. A pervasive millennial-scale cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and glacial climates. Science 278: 1257–1266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borg L.E. and Banner J.L. 1996. Neodymium and strontium isotopic constraints on soil sources in Barbados, West Indies. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60: 4193–4206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bosscher H. and Schlager W. 1992. Computer-simulation of reef growth. Sedimentology 39: 503–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boulay S., Colin C., Trentesaux A., Clain S., Liu Z. and Lauer-Leredde C. 2007. Sedimentary responses to the Pleistocene climatic variations recorded in the South China Sea. Quat. Res. 68: 162–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boulay S., Colin C., Trentesaux A., Frank N. and Liu Z. 2005. Sediment sources and East Asian monsoon intensity over the last 450 ky: Mineralogical and geochemical investigations on South China Sea sediments. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 228: 260–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boulay S., Colin C., Trentesaux A., Pluquet F., Bertaux J., Blamart D., Buehring C. and Wang P. 2003. Mineralogy and sedimentology of Pleistocene sediments in the South China Sea (ODP Site 1144). In: Prell W.L., Wang P., Blum P., Rea D.K. and Clemens S.C. (eds.), Proc. ODP Sci. Result 184: 1–21 [Online].Google Scholar
  21. Boyd P.W., Watson A.J. and Law C.S. 2000. A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization. Nature 407: 695–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Briais A., Patriat P. and Tapponnier P. 1993. Update interpretation of magnetic anomalies and seafloor spreading stages in the South China Sea: Implications for the Tertiary tectonics of southeast Asia. J. Geophys. Res. 98(B4): 6299–6328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bühring C., Sarnthein M. and Erlenkeuser H. 2004. Toward a high resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the last 1.1 m.y.: Site 1144, South China Sea. In: Prell W.L., Wang P., Blum P., Rea D.K. and Clemens S.C. (eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results 184: 1–29 [Online].Google Scholar
  24. Bühring C., Sarnthein M. and Leg 184 Shipboard Scientific Party 2000. Toba ash layers in the South China Sea: Evidence of contrasting wind directions during eruption ca. 74 ka. Geology 28: 275–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Byran Jr E.H. 1953. Check list of atolls. Atoll Res. Bull. 19: 1–38.Google Scholar
  26. Cande S.C. and Kent D.V. 1992. A new geomagnetic polarity time scale for the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. J. Geophys. Res. 97 (B10): 13917–13951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cande S.C. and Kent D.V. 1995. Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity timescale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. J. Geophys. Res. 100(B4): 6093–6095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cane M.A. and Molnar P. 2001. Closing of the Indonesian seaway as a precursor to east African aridifiation around 3–4 million years ago. Nature 411: 157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Caruso M.J., Gawarkiewicz G.G. and Beardsley R.C. 2006. Interannual variability of the Kuroshio intrusion in the South China Sea. J. Oceanogr. 62: 559–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chamley H. 1989. Clay Sedimentology. Springer, New York, 623pp.Google Scholar
  31. Chave K.E., Smith S.V. and Roy K.J. 1972. Carbonate Production by Coral Reefs. Mar. Geol. 12: 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen J. 2005. Biogeochemistry of Settling Particles in the South China Sea and Its Significance on Paleo-environment Studies. PhD thesis, Tongji Univ., Shanghai, 136pp.Google Scholar
  33. Chen C.T.A., Hou W.P., Gamo T. and Wang S.L. 2006. Carbonate-related parameters of subsurface waters in the West Philippine, South China and Sulu Seas. Mar. Chem. 99: 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chen C.C., Shiah F.K., Chung S.W. and Liu K.K. 2006b. Winter phytoplankton blooms in the shallow mixed layer of the South China Sea enhanced by upwelling. J. Mar. Syst. 59: 97–110.Google Scholar
  35. Chen C.T.A., Wang S.L., Chou W.C. and Sheu D.D. 2006c. Carbonate chemistry and projected future changes in pH and CaCO3 saturation state of the South China Sea. Mar. Chem. 101: 277–305.Google Scholar
  36. Chen C.T., Wang C.H., Soong K.Y. and Wang B.J. 2001. Water temperature records from corals near the nuclear power plant in southern Taiwan. Sci. China (D) 44(4): 356–362.Google Scholar
  37. Chen C.T.A., Wang S.L., Wang B.J. and Pai S.C. 2001b. Nutrient budgets for the South China Sea basin. Mar. Chem. 75: 281–300.Google Scholar
  38. Chen D.F., Huang Y.Y., Yuan X.L. and Cathles III L.M. 2005. Seep carbonates and preserved methane oxidizing bacteria and sulfur reducing bacteria fossils suggest recent gas venting the seafloor in the northeastern South China Sea. Mar. Pet. Geol. 22: 613–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chen M., Wang R., Yang L., Han J. and Lu J. 2003b. Development of east Asian summer monsoon environments in the late Miocene: radiolarian evidence from Site 1143 of ODP Leg 184. Mar. Geol. 201: 169–177.Google Scholar
  40. Chen M.T. and Huang C.Y. 1998. Ice-volume forcing of winter monsoon climate in the South China Sea. Paleoceanography 13: 622–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chen M.T., Shiau L.J., Yu P.S., Chiu T.C., Chen Y.G. and Wei G.Y. 2003a. 500,000-year records of carbonate, organic carbon, and foraminiferal sea-surface temperature from the southeastern South China Sea (near Palawan Island). Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 197: 113–131.Google Scholar
  42. Chen P.Y. 1978. Minerals in bottom sediments of the South China Sea. GSA Bull. 89: 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chen R., Zheng Y., Wiesner M.G., Jin H., Zhao Q., Zheng L. and Chen J. 2006. Seasonal and annual variations of marine sinking particulate flux during 1993–1996 in the central South China Sea. Acta Oceanol. Sinica 28(3): 72–80 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  44. Chen W. and Zhou F. 1993. A study of volcanic glass in northern South China Sea during the last 100 ka. In: Zheng L. and Chen W. (eds.), Contributions to Sedimentation Process and Geochemistry of the South China Sea. China Ocean Press, Beijing, pp. 39–45 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  45. Chen X., Zhao Q. and Jian Z. 2002. Carbonate content changes since the Miocene and paleoenvironmental implications, ODP Site 1148, northern South China Sea. Mar. Geol. Quat. Geol. 22: 69–74 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  46. Chen Y.L. 2005. Spatial and seasonal variations of nitrate-based new production and primary production in the South China Sea. Deep-Sea Res. I 52: 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Chen Y.Y., Chen M.T. and Fang T.S. 1999. Biogenic sedimentation patterns in the northern South China Sea: an ultrahigh-resolution record MD972148 of the past 150,000 years from the IMAGES III-IPHIS Cruise. Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci. (TAO) Taipei 10: 215–224.Google Scholar
  48. Chen Y.G. and Liu T.K. 1996. Sea level changes in the last several thousand years, Penghu Islands, Taiwan Strait. Quat. Res. 45: 254–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Chen Z., Xia B., Yan W., Chen M., Yang H., Gu S. and Li Y. 2005. Distribution, chemical characteristics and source area of volcanic glass in the South China Sea. Acta Oceanol. Sinica 27(5): 73–81 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  50. Chen Z., Yan W., Chen M., Wang S., Lu J., Zhen F., Xiang R., Xiao S., Yan P. and Gu S. 2006. Discovery of seep carbonate nodules as new evidence for gas venting on the northern continental slope of South China Sea. Chinese Sci. Bull. 51(10): 1228–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cheng X., Zhao Q., Wang J., Jian Z., Xia P., Huang B., Fang D., Xu J., Zhou Z. and Wang P. 2004. Data report: Stable Isotopes from Sites 1147 and 1148. In: Prell W.L., Wang P., Blum P., Rea D.K. and Clemens S.C. (eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results 184: 1–12 [Online].Google Scholar
  52. Chesner C.A., Rose W.I., Deino A., Drake R. and Westgate J.A. 1991. Eruptive history of Earth’s largest Quaternary caldera (Toba, Indonesia) clarified. Geology 19: 200–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Clift P. 2006. Controls on the erosion of Cenozoic Asia and the flux of clastic sediment to the ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 241: 571–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Clift P., Lee J. I., Clark M.K. and Blusztajn J. 2002. Erosional response of South China to arc rifting and monsoonal strengthening; a record from the South China Sea. Mar. Geol. 184: 207–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Copper P. 1994. Ancient reef ecosystem expansion and collapse. Coral Reefs 13: 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Cortese G., Gersonde R., Hillenbrand C. and Kuhn G. 2004. Opal sedimentation shifts in the World Ocean over the last 15 Myr. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 224: 509–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Crossland C.J., Hatcher B.G. and Smith S.V. 1991. Role of Coral Reefs in Global Ocean Production. Coral Reefs 10(2): 55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Crowley T.J. 1985. Late Quaternary carbonate changes in the North Atlantic and Atlantic/Pacific comparison. AGU Geophys. Monogr. 32: 271–284.Google Scholar
  59. Dadson S.J., Hovius N., Chen H., Dade W.B., Hsieh M.L., Willett S.D., Hu J.C., Horng M.J., Chen M.C., Stark C.P., Lague D. and Lin J.C. 2003. Links between erosion, runoff variability and seismicity in the Taiwan orogen. Nature 426: 648–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dai C.F. 1991. Reef environment and coral fauna of southern Taiwan. Atoll Res. Bull. 354(3): 1–28.Google Scholar
  61. Damuth J.E. 1979. Migrating sediment waves created by turbidity currents in the northern South China Basin. Geology 7: 520–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Damuth J.E. 1980. Quaternary sedimentation process in the South China Sea basin as revealed by echo-character mapping and piston-core studies. In: Hayes D.E. (ed.), The Tectonics and Geophysical Evolution of Southeast Asian Seas and Islands. AGU Geophys. Monogr. 23: 105–125.Google Scholar
  63. Delaney M.L. and Boyle E.A. 1988. Tertiary Paleogene chemical variability: Unintended consequences of simple geochemical models. Paleoceanography 3: 137–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. De Vooys C.G.N. 1979. Primary production in aquatic environments. In: Bolin B, Degens E.T., Kempe S. and Ketner P. (eds.), SCOPE, 13: The Global Carbon Cycle. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 259–292.Google Scholar
  65. Dickens G.R. and Barron J.A. 1997. A rapid deposited pennate diatom ooze in upper Miocene-lower Pliocene sediment beneath the North Pacific polar front. Mar. Micropaleontol. 31: 177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Dickens G.R. and Owen R.M. 1996. Sediment geochemical evidence for an Early-Middle Gilbert (Early Pliocene) productivity peak in the North Pacific Red Clay Province. Mar. Micropaleontol. 27: 107–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Dickens G.R. and Owen R.M. 1999. The latest Miocene–-early Pliocene biogenic bloom: a revised Indian Ocean perspective. Mar. Geol. 161: 75–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Diekmann B., Fälker M. and Kuhn G. 2003. Environmental history of the southeastern South Atlantic since the middle Miocene: Evidence from the sedimentological records of ODP Sites 1088 and 1092. Sedimentology 50: 511–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Diester-Haass L., Billups K. and Emeis K.C. 2005. In search of the late Miocene-early Pliocene “biogenic bloom” in the Atlantic Ocean (Ocean Drilling Program Sites 982, 925, and 1088). Paleoceanography 20: PA4001, doi:10.1029/2005PA001139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Diester-Haass L., Billups K. and Emeis K.C. 2006. Late Miocene carbon isotope records and marine biological productivity: Was there a (dusty) link? Paleoceanography 21: PA4216, doi:10.1029/2006PA001267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ding Z.L., Liu T. and Rutter N.W. 1995. Ice-volume forcing of East Asian winter monsoon variations in the past 800,000 years. Quat. Res. 44: 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ding Z.L., Yang S.L., Sun J.M. and Liu T.S. 2001. Iron geochemistry of loess and red clay deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau and implications for long-term Asian monsoon evolution in the last 7.0 Ma. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 185: 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Dixit S., Van Cappellen P. and van Bennekom A. 2001. Processes controlling solubility of biogenic silica and pore water build-up of silicic acid in marine sediments. Mar. Chem. 73: 333–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Du Bois E.P. 1981. Review of principal hydrocarbon-bearings of the South China Sea. Energy 6(11): 1113–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. El-Gamal A.A.H., Wang S.K., Dai C.F. and Duh C.Y. 2004. New nardosinanes and 19-oxygenated ergosterols from the soft coral Nephthea armata collected in Taiwan. J. Natural Products 67(9): 1455–1458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fan T.Y., Chou Y.H. and Dai C.F. 2005. Sexual reproduction of the alcyonacean coral Lobophytum pauciflorum in southern Taiwan. Bull. Mar. Sci. 76(1): 143–154.Google Scholar
  77. Fang L.S. and Chou Y.C. 1992. Concentration of fulvic-acid in the growth bands of hermatypic corals in relation to local precipitation. Coral Reefs 11(4): 187–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Farrell J.W., Raffi I., Janecek T.R., Murray D.W., Levitan M., Dadey K.A., Emeis K.C., Lyle M., Flores J.A. and Hovan S. 1995. Late Neogene sedimentation patterns in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Proc. ODP Sci. Results 138: 717–756.Google Scholar
  79. Fiske R.S. and Simkin T. 1983. Krakatau, 1883: the Volcanic Eruption and Its Effects. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C., 464pp.Google Scholar
  80. Ghiold J. and Enos P. 1982. Carbonate production of the coral Diploria-Labyrinthiformis in South Florida patch reefs. Mar. Geol. 45: 281–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gingele F.X., Deckker P.D. and Hillenbrand C.D. 2001. Clay mineral distribution in surface sediments between Indonesia and NW Australia – source and transport by ocean currents. Mar. Geol. 179: 135–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Goldstein S.J. and Jacobsen D.B. 1988. Nd and Sr isotopic systematic of river water suspended material: Implications for crustal evolution. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 87: 215–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gong Z. 1997. The Major Oil and Gas Fields of China Offshore. Petroleum Industrial Press, Beijing, 223pp (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  84. Gong Z. and Li S. (eds.). 1997. Continental Margin Basin Analysis and Hydrocarbon Accumulation of the Northern South China Sea. China Sci. Press, Beijing, 510pp (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  85. Gran K.B. and Montgomery D.R. 2005. Spatial and temporal pattern in fluvial recovery following volcanic eruptions: Channel response to basin-wide sediment loading at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. GSA Bull. 117: 195–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Griffin J.J., Windom H. and Goldberg E.D. 1968. The distribution of clay minerals in the World Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. 15: 433–459.Google Scholar
  87. Guilcher A. 1988. Coral Reef Geomorphology. John Wiley &Sons, New York, pp. 40–44.Google Scholar
  88. Guo Z.T., Ruddiman W.F., Hao Q.Z., Wu H.B., Qiao Y.S., Zhu R.X., Peng S.Z., Wei J.J., Yuan B.Y. and Liu T.S. 2002. Onset of Asian desertification by 22 Myr ago inferred from loess deposits in China. Nature 416: 159–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Han W. and Ma K. 1988. Carbonate compensation depth, saturation horizon and lysocline in the northeast region of South China Sea. Tropical Oceanol. 7(3): 84–89Google Scholar
  90. Han X.Q., Suess E., Huang Y.Y., Wu N.Y., Bohrmann G., Su X., Eisenhauer A., Rehder G. and Fang Y.X. 2008. Jiulong methane reef: Microbial mediation of seep carbonates in the South China Sea. Mar. Geol. 249: 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hanebuth T., Stattegger K. and Groote P.M. 2000. Rapid flooding of the Sunda Shelf: a late-glacial sea-level record. Science 288: 1033–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Harrison T.M., Copeland P., Kidd W.S.F. and Yin A. 1992. Raising Tibet. Science 255: 1663–1670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hay W.W. 1998. Detrital sediment fluxes from continents to oceans. Chem. Geol. 145: 287–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hay W.W., Sloan J.L.II and Wold C.N. 1988. Mass/age distribution and composition of sediments on the ocean floor and the global rate of sediment subduction. J. Geophys. Res. 93 (B12): 14933–14940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hays J.D., Saito T., Opdyke N.D. and Burckle L.H. 1969. Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments of the equatorial Pacific: their paleomagnetic, biostratigraphic and climatic record. GSA Bull. 80: 1481–1514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. He X.X., Liu D.Y., Peng Z.C. and Liu W.Q. 2002. Monthly sea surface temperature records reconstructed by delta O-18 of reef-building coral in the east of Hainan Island, South China Sea. Sci. China (B) 45: 130–136.Google Scholar
  97. Higginson M., Maxwell J.R. and Altabet M.A. 2003. Nitrogen isotope and chlorin paleoproductivity records from the Northern South China Sea: remote vs. local forcing of millennial- and orbital-scale variability. Mar. Geol. 201: 223–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hillenbrand C. and Ehrmann W. 2005. Late Neogene to Quaternary environmental changes in the Antarctic Peninsula region: evidence from drift sediments. Global Planet. Change 45: 165–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hiscott R.N. 2001. Depositional sequences controlled by high rates of sediment supply, sea-level variations, and growth faulting: the Quaternary Baram Delta of northwestern Borneo. Mar. Geol. 175: 67–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hoang N. and Flower M. 1998. Petrogenesis of Cenozoic basalts from Vietnam: implication for origins of a diffuse igneous province. J. Petroleum 30: 569–595.Google Scholar
  101. Holloway N.H. 1982. North Palawan Block, Philippines, its relation to Asian mainland and role in evolution of South China Sea. AAPG Bull. 66: 1355–1383.Google Scholar
  102. Houseman G. and England P. 1993. Crustal thickening versus lateral expulsion in the Indian-Asian continental collision. J. Geophys. Res. 98: 12233–12249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hu P.Z. and Wang J.Z. 1996. Tertiary organic reef in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, organic reef and oil of China. China Ocean Press, Beijing, pp. 294–323 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  104. Hu P.Z. and Xie Y.X. 1987. Tertiary reef complexes and their relationship with hydrocarbon accumulation in Pearl River Mouth Basin. In: Society G.P. (ed.), International Conference on Prtroleum Geology of the Northern Continental Shelf of the South China Sea, pp. 505–529.Google Scholar
  105. Huang B., Jian Z. and Lin H. 2000. Late Quaternary changes of paleoproductivity in the northeastern South China Sea. Mar. Geol. Quat. Geol. 20(2): 65–68 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  106. Huang C.Y., Liew P.M., Zhao M., Chang T.C., Kuo C.M., Chen M.T., Wang C.H. and Zhang L.F. 1997a. Deep sea and lake records of the Southeast Asian paleomonsoons for the last 25 thousands years. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 146: 59–72.Google Scholar
  107. Huang C.Y., Wang C.C. and Zhao M.X. 1999. High-resolution carbonate stratigraphy of IMAGES core MD972151 from South China Sea. Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci. (TAO) Taipei 10: 225–238.Google Scholar
  108. Huang C.Y., Wu S.F., Zhao M., Chen M.T., Wang C.H., Tu X. and Yuan P.B. 1997b. Surface ocean and monsoon climate variability in the South China Sea since the last glaciation. Mar. Micropaleotol. 32: 71–94.Google Scholar
  109. Huang C.Y., Yuan P.B., Lin C.W., Wang T.K. and Chang C.P. 2000. Geodynamic processes of Taiwan arc-continent collision and comparison with analogs in Timor, Papua New Guinea, Ural and Corsia. Tectonophysics 325: 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Huang W. 2004. Sediment distributional patterns and evolution in the South China Sea since the Oligocene. PhD thesis, Tongji Univ., Shanghai. 114pp (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  111. Huang W. and Wang P. 1998. A quantitative approach to deep-water sedimentation in the South China Sea: changes since the last glaciation. Sci. China (D) 41(2): 195–201.Google Scholar
  112. Huang W. and Wang P. 2006. Sediment mass and distribution in the South China Sea since the Oligocene. Sci. China (D) 49(11): 1147–1155.Google Scholar
  113. Huang W. and Wang P. 2007a. Statistics of sediment mass in the South China Sea: method and results. Fronts. Earth Sci. China 1: 88–96 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  114. Huang W. and Wang P. 2007b. Accumulation rate characterstics of deep-water sedimentation in the South China Sea during the last glaciation and the Holocene. Acta Oceanol. Sinica 29(5): 69–73 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  115. Jagodziński R. 2005. Petrography and geochemistry of surface sediments from Sunda and Vietnamese shelves (South China Sea). Adam Mickiewicz Univ. Press, Poznań, 144pp.Google Scholar
  116. Jansen J.H.F., Kuijpers A. and Troelstra S.R. 1986. A Mid-Brunhes climatic event: Long-term changes in global atmosphere and ocean circulation. Science 232: 619–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Jia G., Jian Z., Peng P., Wang P. and Fu J. 2000. Biogenic silica records in core 17962 from southern South China Sea and their relation to paleoceanographical events. Geochimica 29(3): 293–296 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  118. Jia G., Peng P., Zhao Q. and Jian Z. 2003. Changes in terrestrial ecosystem since 30 Ma in East Asia: Stable isotope evidence from black carbon in the South China Sea. Geology 31: 1093–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Jian Z. and Huang B. 2001. Late Quaternary upwelling intensity and East Asian Monsoon forcing in the South China Sea. Quat. Res. 55: 363–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Jian Z., Wang L. and Kienast K. 1999. Late Quaternary surface paleoproductivity and variations of the East Asian Monsoon in the South China Sea. Quat. Sci. 1: 32–40Google Scholar
  121. Johnson M.R.W. 1994. Volume balance of erosional loss and sediment deposition related to Himalayan uplift. J. Geol. Soc. 151: 217–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kawahata H., Suzuki A. and Goto K. 1997. Coral reef ecosystems as a source of atmospheric CO2: evidence from PCO2 measurements of surface waters. Coral Reefs 16(4): 261–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kawahata H., Suzuki A., Ayukai T. and Goto K. 2000. Distribution of the fugacity of carbon dioxide in the surface seawater of the Great Barrier Reef. Mar. Chem. 72: 257–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Kayanne H., Suzuki A. and Saito H. 1995. Diurnal changes in the partial-pressure of carbon-dioxide in coral-reef water. Science 269: 214–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kennedy D.M. and Woodroffe C.D. 2000. Holocene lagoonal sedimentation at the latitudinal limits of reef growth, Lord Howe Island, Tasman Sea. Mar. Geol. 169: 287–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kennett J.P. 1982. Marine Geology. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 813pp.Google Scholar
  127. Kinsey D.W. 1985. Metabolism, calcification and carbonate production. I. Systems level studies. In: Gabrie C. and Salvat B. (eds.), Proc. 5th Coral Reef Symposium, Tahiti, pp. 505–526.Google Scholar
  128. Kinsey D.W. and Hopley D. 1991. The significance of coral reefs as global carbon sinks – Response to greenhouse. Global Planet. Change 89: 363–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kleypas J.A. 1997. Modeled estimates of global reef habitat and carbonate production since the last glacial maximum. Paleoceanography 12: 533–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Kleypas J.A., Buddemeier R.W., Archer D., Gattuso J.P., Langdon C. and Opdyke B.N. 1999. Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs. Science 284: 118–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Koyaguchi T. and Tokuno M. 1993. Origin of the giant eruption cloud of Pinatubo, June 15, 1991. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 55: 85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kudrass H.R., Erienkeuser H., Vollbrecht R. and Weiss W. 1991. Global nature of the Younger Dryas cooling event inferred from oxygen isotope data from Sulu Sea cores. Nature 349: 406–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Kukla G., An Z., Melice J.L., Gavin J. and Xiao J. 1990. Magnetic susceptibility record of Chinese loess. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh Earth Sci. 81: 263–288.Google Scholar
  134. Laj C., Wang P. and Balut Y. 2005. IPEV les rapports de campagnes à la mer. MD147/MARCO POLO- IMAGES XII à bord du “Marion Dufresne”, 59pp.Google Scholar
  135. Lambiase J.J., bin Abdul Rahim A.A. and Peng C.Y. 2002. Facies distribution and sedimentary processes on the modern Baram Delta: implications for the reservoir sandstones on NW Borneo. Mar. Petroleum Geol. 19: 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Lee M.-Y., Chen C.-H., Wei K.-Y., Iizuka Y. and Carey S. 2004. First Toba supereruption revival. Geology 32:61–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Leinen M. 1979. Biogenic silica accumulation in the central equatorial Pacific and its implications for Cenozoic paleoceanography. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 90: 1310–1376.Google Scholar
  138. Li B., Jian Z., Li Q., Tian J. and Wang P. 2005. Paleoceanography of the South China Sea since the middle Miocene: evidence from planktonic foraminifera. Mar. Micropaleontol. 54: 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Li B., Zhao Q., Chen M.-P., Jian Z. and Wang P. 2001. Carbonate dissolution and deep-water paleoceanography of the South China Sea since the Middle Pleistocene. Chinese Sci. Bull. 46: 1908–1912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Li J. and Wang R. 2004. Paleoproductivity variability of the northern South China Sea during the past 1 Ma: The opal record from ODP Site 1144. Acta Geol. Sinica 78(2): 228–233Google Scholar
  141. Li J., Jin X. and Gao J. 2002b. Morpho-tectonic study on late-stage spreading of the Eastern Subbasin of South China Sea. Sci. China (D) 45: 978–989.Google Scholar
  142. Li J., Wang R. and Li B. 2002a. Variations of opal accumulation rates and paleoproductivity over the past 12 Ma at ODP Site 1143, southern South China Sea. Chinese Sci. Bull. 47: 596–598.Google Scholar
  143. Li Q., Jian Z. and Su X. 2005. Late Oligocene rapid transformations in the South China Sea. Mar. Micropaleontol. 54: 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Li Q., Wang P., Zhao Q., Shao L., Zhong G., Tian J., Cheng X., Jian Z. and Su X. 2006. A 33 Ma lithostratigraphic record of tectonic and paleoceanographic evolution of the South China Sea. Mar. Geol. 230: 217–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Li X. 2005. Sedimentary Characteristics of the western South China Sea and their variations since the late Pleistocene. PhD thesis, Tongji Univ., Shanghai, 91pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  146. Li X., Wei G., Shao L., Liu Y., Liang X., Jian Z., Sun M. and Wang P. 2003. Geochemical and Nd isotopic variations in sediments of the South China Sea: a response to Cenozoic tectonism in SE Asia. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 211: 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Li Y.H., Huang X.P., Yue W.Z., Lin Y.T., Zou R.L. and Huang H. 2004. Ecological study on coral reef and intertidal benthos around Yongxing Island, South China Sea. Oceanol. Limnol. Sinica 35(2): 176–182(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  148. Li Y. and Yang L. 1997. Distributive features of basal matter types of South China Sea. In: Xu D., Liu X. and Zhang X. (eds.), China Offshore Geology. Geol. Publ. House, Beijing, pp. 103–123Google Scholar
  149. Liang W. and Li G.Z. 2002. Preliminary study on characteristics of coral reef distribution and environmental protection in Weizhou Island. Res. Environm. Sci. 15(6): 5–7(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  150. Liang X., Wei G., Shao L., Li X. and Wang R. 2001. Records of Toba eruptions in the South China Sea – Chemical charateristics of the glass shards from ODP 1143A. Sci. China (D) 44(10): 871–878.Google Scholar
  151. Liao Z. 1995. Preliminary estimations of the sediment filling in Chinese Meso-Cenozoic basins. J. Tongji Univ., 23(Suppl.): 162–164(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  152. Lisitzin A.P. 1972. Sedimentation in the World Ocean. SEPM Paper No. 17, 218pp.Google Scholar
  153. Liu B. 2001. Features Analysis and Measurement of Nansha Islands Remote Sensing Integration Information. China Ocean Press, Beijing, 173pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  154. Liu H., Guo L., Sun Y., Zhou D., Su L., Yang S., Zhang Y. and Zhang B. 2002. Study on fault system in Nansha Block (South China Sea) and the block’s lithospheric dynamics. China Sci. Press, Beijing, 123pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  155. Lin H., Lai C., Ting H., Wang L., Sarnthein M. and Huang J. 1999. Late Pleistocene nutrients and sea surface productivity in the South China Sea: a record of teleconnections with northern hemisphere events. Mar. Geol. 156: 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Liu K.-K., Chao S.-Y., Shaw P.-T., Gong G.-C., Chen C.-C. and Tang T.Y. 2002. Monsoon-forced chlorophyll distribution and primary production in the South China Sea: observations and a numerical study. Deep-Sea Res. I 49: 1387–1412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Liu P.J., Fan T.Y. and Dai C.F. 2005. Timing of larval release by the blue coral, Heliopora coerulea, in southern Taiwan. Coral Reefs 24: 30–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Liu X.D., Zhao S.P., Sun L.G., Yin X.B., Xie Z.Q., Honghao L. and Wang Y.H. 2006. P and trace metal contents in biomaterials, soils, sediments and plants in colony of red-footed booby (Sula sula) in the Dongdao Island of South China Sea. Chemosphere 65: 707–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Liu Z., Colin C. and Trentesaux A. 2006. Major element geochemistry of glass shards and minerals of the Youngest Toba Tephra in the southwestern South China Sea. J. Asian Earth Sci. 27: 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Liu Z., Colin C., Huang W., Chen Z., Trentesaux A. and Chen J. 2007b. Clay minerals in surface sediments of the Pearl River drainage basin and their contribution to the South China Sea. Chinese Sci. Bull. 52(8): 1101–1111.Google Scholar
  161. Liu Z., Colin C., Huang W., Le K.P., Tong S., Chen Z. and Trentesaux A. 2007a. Climatic and tectonic controls on weathering in South China and the Indochina Peninsula: clay mineralogical and geochemical investigations from the Pearl, Red, and Mekong drainage basins. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 8: Q05005, doi:10.1029/2006GC001490.Google Scholar
  162. Liu Z., Colin C., Trentesaux A., Blamart D., Bassinot F., Siani G. and Sicre M.-A. 2004. Erosional history of the eastern Tibetan Plateau since 190 kyr ago: clay mineralogical and geochemical investigations from the southwestern South China Sea. Mar. Geol. 209: 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Liu Z., Colin C., Trentesaux A., Siani G., Frank N., Blamart D. and Farid S. 2005. Late Quaternary climatic control on erosion and weathering in the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the Mekong Basin. Quat. Res. 63: 316–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Liu Z., Trentesaux A., Clemens S.C., Colin C., Wang P., Huang B. and Boulay S. 2003a. Clay mineral assemblages in the northern South China Sea: implications for East Asian monsoon evolution over the past 2 million years. Mar. Geol. 201: 133–146.Google Scholar
  165. Liu Z., Trentesaux A., Clemens S.C. and Wang P. 2003b. Quaternary clay mineralogy in the northern South China Sea (ODP Site 1146) -Implications for oceanic current transport and East Asian monsoon evolution. Sci. China (D) 46(12): 1123–1235.Google Scholar
  166. Liu Z., Wang P., Wang C., Shao L. and Huang W. 2001. Paleotopography of China during the Cenozoic: a preliminary study. Geol. Rev. 47(5): 467–475(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  167. Liu Z., Tuo S., Colin C., Liu J.T., Huang C.-Y., Selvaraj K., Chen C.-T.A., Zhao Y., Siringan F.P., Boulay S. and Chen Z. 2008. Detrital fine-grained sediment contribution from Taiwan to the northern South China Sea and its relation to regional ocean circulation. Mar. Geol. 255: 149–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Liu Z., Zhao Y., Li J. and Colin C. 2007c. Late Quaternary clay minerals off middle Vietnam in the western South China Sea: implications for source analysis and East Asian monsoon evolution. Sci. China (D) 50(11): 1674–1684.Google Scholar
  169. Lu H., Liu J., Chen F., Liao Z., Sun X. and Su X. 2005. Mineralogy and stable isotope composition of authigenic carbonates in bottom sediments on the offshore area of southwest Taiwan, South China Sea: evidence for gas hydrates occurrence. Earth Sci. Frontiers 12: 268–276(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  170. Lüdmann T. and Wong H.K. 1999. Neotectonic regime on the passive continental margin of the northern South China Sea. Tectonophysics 311: 113–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Lüdmann T., Wong H.K. and Berglar K. 2005. Upward flow of North Pacific Deep Water in the northern South China Sea as deduced from the occurrence of drift sediments. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32: L05614, doi:10.1029/2004GL021967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Lüdmann T., Wong H.K. and Wang P. 2001. Plio-Quaternary sedimentation processes and neotectonics of the northern continental margin of the South China Sea. Mar. Geol. 172: 331–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Luz B. and Shackleton N.J. 1975. CaCO3% solution in the tropical east Pacific during the past 130,000 years. Cushman Found. Foraminiferal Res., Special Publ. 13: 142–150.Google Scholar
  174. Lyle M. 2003. Neogene carbonate burial in the Pacific Ocean. Paleoceanography 18: 1059, doi: 10.1029/2002PA000777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Lyle M., Dadey K.A. and Farrell J.W. 1995. The late Miocene (11–8 Ma) eastern Pacific carbonate crash: evidence for reorganization of deep-water circulation by the closure of the Panama Gateway. Proc. ODP Sci. Results 138: 821–838.Google Scholar
  176. Lyle M., Koizumi I., Richter C., Behl R.J., Boden P., Caulet J.-P., Delaney M.L., deMenocal, P., Desmet M., Fornaciari, E., Hayashida A., Heider F., Hood J., Hovan S.A., Janecek T.R., Janik A.G., Kennett J., Lund D., Machain Castillo M.L., Maruyama T., Merrill R.B., Mossman D.J., Pike J., Ravelo A.C., Rozo Vera G.A., Stax R., Tada R., Thurow J. and Yamamoto M. 1997. Proc. ODP Initial Reports 167. College Station, Texas (Ocean Drilling Program), 1378pp.Google Scholar
  177. Ma Z.B., Xia M., Zhang C.H., Pen Z.C., Wang Z.R., Sun W.D. and An Z.S. 1999. High-precision U-series dating of Holocene corals from South China Sea by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Chinese Sci. Bull. 44(10): 937–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Ma Z.B., Xiao J.L., Zhao X.T., Peng Z.C., Xia M., Zhang G.P., Wang Z.R. and An Z.S. 2003. Precise U-series dating of coral reefs from the South China Sea and the high sea level during the Holocene. J. Coast. Res. 19: 296–303.Google Scholar
  179. Marsaglia K.M., Boggs J.S., Clift P., Seyedolali A. and Smith R. 1995. Sedimentation in western Pacific backarc basins: new insights from recent ODP drilling. In: Taylor B. and Natland J. (eds.), Active Margins and Marginal Basins of the Western Pacific, pp. 291–314.Google Scholar
  180. Martinson D.G., Pisias N.G., Hays J.D., Imbrie J., Moore T.C. Jr. and Shackleton N.J. 1987. Age dating and the orbital theory of the ice age: development of a high resolution 0 to 300,000 year chronostratigraphy. Quat. Res. 27: 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Mayer L., Pisias N. and Janecek T. 1992. Proc. ODP, Initial Reports. College Station, Texas (Ocean Drilling Program), vol. 138, 1462pp.Google Scholar
  182. McCulloch M., Fallon S., Wyndham T., Hendy E., Lough J. and Barnes D. 2003. Coral record of increased sediment flux to the inner Great Barrier Reef since European settlement. Nature 421: 727–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. McLennan S.M. 1993. Weathering and global denudation. J. Geol. 101: 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Métivier F., Gaudemer Y., Tapponnier P. and Klein M. 1999. Mass accumulation rates in Asia during the Cenozoic. Geophys. J. Int. 137: 280–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Miao Q., Thunell R.C. and Andersen D.M. 1994. Glacial-Holocene carbonate dissolution and sea surface temperatures in the South China and Sulu seas. Paleoceanography 9: 269–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Miao Q., Thunell R.C. and Anderson D.M. 1994b. Glacial-Holocene carbonate dissolution in the South China Sea. Mar. Micropaleontol. 22: 1–32.Google Scholar
  187. Michel E.J., Turon L. and Beaufort B. 1997. Les Rapport de Campagne à la Mer à Bord du Marion Dufresne MD106, IPHIS I and II. Institut Francais pour la Recherche et la Technologie Polaires, L, Brest.Google Scholar
  188. Mikkelsen N. and Barron J.A. 1997. Early Oligocene diatoms on the Ceara Rise and the Cenozoic evolution of biogenic silica accumulation in the low-latitude Atlantic. Proc. ODP Sci. Results 154: 483–490.Google Scholar
  189. Milliman J.D. 1974. Marine Carbonate. Springer-Verlag, New York, 375pp.Google Scholar
  190. Milliman J.D. 1993. Production and accumulation of calcium carbonate in the ocean: budget of a nonsteady state. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7(4): 927–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Milliman J.D. and Syvitski J.P.M. 1992. Geomorphic/tectonic control of sediment discharge to the ocean: the importance of small mountainous rivers. J. Geol. 100: 525–544.Google Scholar
  192. Moberly R. and Schlanger S. 1986. Init. Repts. DSDP. U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington D.C., vol. 89, 678pp.Google Scholar
  193. Nesbitt H.W. and Young G.M. 1982. Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature 299: 715–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Nie B.F., Chen T.G., Liang M.T., Wang Y.Q., Zhong J.L. and Zhu Y.Z. 1997a. Relationship between coral growth rate and sea surface temperature in the northern part of South China Sea during the past 100 a. Sci. China (D) 40(2): 173–182.Google Scholar
  195. Nie B.F., Chen T.G., Liang M.T., Zhong J.L. and Yu K.F. 1997b. Coral reefs from Leizhou Peninsula and Holocene sea level highstands. Chinese Sci. Bull. 42(5): 511–514(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  196. Nie B.F., Chen T.G., Liang M.T., Zhong J.L. and Yu K.F. 1997c. The relationship between reefs coral and environmental changes of Nansha Islands and adjacent regions. China Sci. Press, Beijing, 101pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  197. Nie B.F., Chen T.G. and Peng Z.C. 1999. Reconstruction of sea surface temperature series in the last 220 years by use of reef corals in Xisha waters, South China Sea. Chinese Sci. Bull. 44(22): 2094–2098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Nie B.F., Guo L.F., Zhu Y.Z. and Zhong J.L. 1992. Modern sediments of Zhongsha atoll. Nanhai Studia Marina Sinica 10: 1–14(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  199. Ninkovich D., Shackleton N.J., Abdel-Monem A.A., Obradovich J.D. and Izett G. 1978. K-Ar age of the late Pleistocene eruption of Toba, north Sumatra. Nature 276: 574–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Opdyke B.N. and Walker J.C.G. 1992. Return of the coral-reef hypothesis – Basin to shelf partitioning of CaCO3 and iIts effect on atmospheric CO2. Geology 20: 733–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Oppenheimer C. 2002. Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba ~74kyr BP. Quat. Sci. Rev. 21: 1593–1609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Packham G. 1996. Cenozoic SE Asia: reconstructing its aggregation and reorganization. In: Hall R. and Blundell D. (eds), Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ., London, pp. 123–152.Google Scholar
  203. Pang X., Chen C., Wu M., He M. and Wu X. 2006. The Pearl River deep-water fan systems and significant geological events. Adv. Earth Sci. 21: 793–799(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  204. Pattan J.N., Shane P. and Banakar V.K. 1999. New occurrence of Youngest Toba Tuff in abyssal sediments of the Central Indian Basin. Mar. Geol. 155: 243–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Pautot G., Rangin C., Briais A., Wu J., Han S., Li H., Lu Y. and Zhao J. 1990. The axial ridge of the South China Sea: a seabeam and geophysical survey. Oceanol. Acta 13: 129–143.Google Scholar
  206. Peng Z.C., Chen T.G., Nie B.F., Head M.J., He X.X. and Zhou W.J. 2003. Coral delta O-18 records as an indicator of winter monsoon intensity in the South China Sea. Quat. Res. 59: 285–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Peng Z.C., He X.X., Zhang Z.F., Zhou J., Sheng L.S. and Gao H. 2002. Correlation of coral fluorescence with nearshore rainfall and runoff in Hainan Island, South China Sea. Progr. Natural Sci. 12: 41–44(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  208. Prell W.L., Murray D.W., Clemens S.C. and Anderson D.M. 1992. Evolution and variability of the Indian Ocean summer monsoon: Evidence from the western Arabian Sea drilling program. In: Duncan R.A., Rea D.K., Kidd R.B., von Rad U. and Weissel J.K. (eds.), The Indian Ocean: A Synthesis of Results from the Ocean Drilling Program. Geophys. Monogr. 70, AGU, pp. 447–469.Google Scholar
  209. Qian J. 1999. Paleooceanoraphy for the Late Quaternary in the South China Sea. China Sci. Press, Beijing, 156pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  210. Qiu Y. and Wang Y.-M. 2001. Reefs and paleostructure and paleoenvironment in the South China Sea. Mar. Geol. Quat. Geol. 21: 65–73(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  211. Qiu Y., Yao B., Li T., Biao C. and Gong Y. 1999. Geological structure characteristics of the Zhongjiannan Basin, the Western of the South China Sea. In: Yao B., Qiu Y. and Wu N. (eds.), Geological and Tectonic Characteristics and Cenozoic Sedimentation of the Western South China Sea. Geol. Publ. House, Beijing, pp. 56–70(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  212. Ragueneau O., Treguer P., Leynaert A., Anderson R.F., Brzezinski M.A., DeMaster D.J., Dugdale R.C., Dymond J., Fischer G., François R., Heinze C., Maier-Reimer E., Martin-Jézéquel V., Nelson D. M. and Quéguiner B. 2000. A review of the Si cycle in the modern ocean: recent progress and missing gaps in the application of biogenic opal as a paleoproductivity proxy. Global Planet. Change 26: 317–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Rea D.K., Snoeck H. and Joseph L.H. 1998. Late Cenozoic eolian deposition in the North Pacific: Asian drying, Tibetan uplift, and cooling of the Northern Hemisphere. Paleoceanography 13: 215–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Rottman M.C. 1979. Distribution of planktonic foraminifera and pteropods in South China Sea sediments. J Foraminiferal Res. 9: 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Ryan D.A., Opdyke B.N. and Jell J.S. 2001. Holocene sediments of Wistari Reef: towards a global quantification of coral reef related neritic sedimentation in the Holocene. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 175: 173–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Sarnthein M., Pflaumann U., Wang P. and Wong H.K. (eds.). 1994. Preliminary Report on SONNE-95 Cruise “Monitor Monsoon” to the South China Sea. Berichte-Reports, Geol.-Palaont. Inst. Univ. Kiel, 48, pp. 1–225.Google Scholar
  217. Schulz H., Emeis K.-C., Erlenkeuser H., von Rad U. and Rolf C. 2002. The Toba volcanic event and interstadial/stadial climates at the Marine Isotopic Stage 5 to 4 transition in the northern Indian Ocean. Quat. Res. 57: 22–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Ségalen P. 1995. Les Sols Ferrallitiques et Leur Répartition Géographique. ORSTOM ed., Coll. Etudes et Thèses, Inst. De Rech. Pour le Dév., Paris, vol. 3, 201pp.Google Scholar
  219. Seibold E.B. and Berger W.H. 1982. The Sea Floor. An Introduction to Marine Geology. Springer-Verlag, 288pp.Google Scholar
  220. Selvaraj K. and Chen C.-T.A. 2006. Moderate chemical weathering of subtropical Taiwan: constraints from solid-phase geochemistry of sediments and sedimentary rocks. J. Geol. 114: 101–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Shackleton N.J. 1985. Oceanic carbon isotope constraints on oxygen and carbon dioxide in the Cenozoic atmosphere. AGU Geophys. Monogr. 32: 412–418.Google Scholar
  222. Shao L., Li X., Geng J., Pang X., Lei Y., Qiao P., Wang L. and Wang H. 2007. Deep water bottom current deposition in the northern South China Sea. Sci. China (D) 50(7): 1060–1066.Google Scholar
  223. Shao L., Li X., Wei G., Liu Y. and Fang D. 2001. Provenance of a prominent sediment drift on the northern slope of the South China Sea. Sci. China (D) 44: 919–925.Google Scholar
  224. Shen C.C., Lee T., Chen C.Y., Wang C.H., Dai C.F. and Li L.A. 1996. The calibration of D[Sr/Ca] versus sea surface temperature relationship for Porites corals. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60: 3849–3858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Shen C.D., Yi W.X., Yu K.F., Sun Y.M., Liu T.S., Beer J., Hajdas I. and Bonani G. 2004a. Holocene megathermal abrupt environmental changes derived from C-14 dating of a coral reef at Leizhou Peninsula, South China Sea. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Res. B 223–24: 416–419.Google Scholar
  226. Shen C.D., Yi W.X., Yu K.F., Sun Y.M., Yang Y. and Zhou B. 2004b. Interannual C-14 variations during 1977–1998 recorded in coral from Daya Bay, South China Sea. Radiocarbon 46(2): 595–601.Google Scholar
  227. Shen C.D., Yu K.F., Sun Y.M., Yi W.X., Yang Y. and Zhou B. 2003. Interannual variations of bomb radiocarbon during 1977–1998 recorded in coral from Daya Bay, South China Sea. Sci. China (D) 46(10): 1040–1048.Google Scholar
  228. Smith S.V. 1978. Coral-reef area and contributions of reefs to processes and resources of world’s oceans. Nature 273: 225–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Smith S.V. and Kinsey D.W. 1976. Calcium-carbonate production, coral-reef growth, and sea-level change. Science 194: 937–939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Song S.R., Chen C.H., Lee M.Y., Yang T.F., Iizuka Y. and Wei K.Y. 2000. Newly discovered eastern dispersal of the youngest Toba Tuff. Mar. Geol. 167: 303–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Soong K. and Chen T.A. 2003. Coral transplantation: Regeneration and growth of Acropora fragments in a nursery. Restoration Ecol.11: 62–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. South China Sea Institute of Oceanology 1985. Reports on Complex Survey in the South China Sea. Sci. Press, Beijing, Vol. 2, 432pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  233. Spalding M.D. and Grenfell A.M. 1997. New estimates of global and regional coral reef areas. Coral Reefs 16: 225–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Spalding M.D., Ravilious C. and Green E.P. 2001. World Atlas of Coral Reefs. Univ. California Press, Berkeley, 424pp.Google Scholar
  235. Steinke S., Kienast M. and Hanebuth T. 2003. On the significance of sea-level variations and shelf paleo-morphology in governing sedimentation in the southern South China Sea during the last deglaciation. Mar. Geol. 201: 179–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Stoddart D.R. 1965. The shape of atolls. Mar. Geol. 3: 369–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Story C., Peng P. and Lin J.D. 2000. Liuhua 11–1 field, South China Sea: A shallow carbonate reservoir developed using untrahigh-resolution 3-D seismic, inversion, and attribute-based reservoir modeling. The Leading Edge 19: 834–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Stow D.A.V., Anano K., Balson P.S., Brass G.W., Corrigan J., Raman C.V., Tiercelin J.J., Townsend M. and Wjiazanansa N.P. 1990. Sediment facies and processes on the distal Bengal Fan, Leg 116. Proc. ODP Sci. Results 116: 377–396.Google Scholar
  239. Su G. and Wang T. 1994. Basic characteristics of modern sedimentation in the South China Sea. In: Zhou D., Liang Y.B. and Zheng C.K. (eds.), Oceanology of China Seas. Kluwer, New York, pp. 407–418.Google Scholar
  240. Su G. and Wang T. 1994. Basic characteristics of modern sedimentation in the South China Sea. In: Zhou D., Liang Y.B. and Zheng C.K. (eds.), Oceanology of China Seas. Kluwer, New York, pp. 407–418.Google Scholar
  241. Su G., Fan Q., Chen S. 1989. Sediment Atlas of the Central and Northern South China Sea. Guangdong Sci. Tech. Press, Guangzhou, 68pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  242. Suess E. 2005. RV SONNE cruise report SO 177, Sino–German cooperative project, South China Sea Continental Margin: geological methane budget and environmental effects of methane emissions and gashydrates. IFM-GEOMAR Reports, 133pp.Google Scholar
  243. Sun D.H., Gagan M.K., Cheng H., Scott-Gagan H., Dykoski C.A., Edwards R.L. and Sua R.X. 2005. Seasonal and interannual variability of the Mid-Holocene East Asian monsoon in coral delta O-18 records from the South China Sea. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 237: 69–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Sun X., Luo Y., Huang F., Tian J. and Wang P. 2003. Deep-sea pollen from the South China Sea: Pleistocene indicators of East Asian monsoon. Mar. Geol. 201: 97–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Sun Y., Sun M., Lee T. and Nie B. 2005. Influence of seawater Sr content on coral Sr/Ca and Sr thermometry. Coral Reefs 24: 23–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Sun Y.L., Sun M., Wei G.J., Lee T., Nie B.F. and Yu Z.W. 2004. Strontium contents of a Porites coral from Xisha Island, South China Sea: A proxy for sea-surface temperature of the 20th century. Paleoceanography 19: PA2004, doi:10.1029/2003PA000959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Suzuki A. and Kawahata H. 2003. Carbonate budget of coral reef systems: an overview of observations in fringing reefs, barrier reefs and atolls in the Indo-pacific regions. Tellus. 55B(2): 428–444.Google Scholar
  248. Suzuki A., Kawahata H. and Goto K. 1997. Reef water CO2 system and carbon cycle in Mahuro Atoll, the Marshall Islands in the central Pacific. In: Lessios H.A. and Macintyre I.G. (eds.), Proc. 8th Int. Coral Reef Symposium, pp. 971–976.Google Scholar
  249. Suzuki A., Kawahata H., Ayukai T. and Goto K. 2001. The oceanic CO2 system and carbon budget in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28: 1243–1246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Tamburini F., Adatte T., Föllmi K., Bernasconi S.M. and Steinmann P. 2003. Investigating the history of East Asian monsoon and climate during the last glacial-interglacial period (0–140 000 years): mineralogy and geochemistry of ODP Sites 1143 and 1144, South China Sea. Mar. Geol. 201: 147–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Tapponnier P., Peltzer G., Le Dain A.Y., Armijo R. and Cobbold P. 1982. Propagating extrusion tectonics in Asia: new insights from simple experiments with plasticine. Geology 10: 611–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Taylor S.R. and McLennan S.M. 1985. The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution. Blackwell, Malden, MA, 312pp.Google Scholar
  253. The Multidisciplinary Oceanographic Expedition Team of Academia Sinica to Nansha Islands 1996. Geology, Geophysics and Natural Resources of Nansha Islands and Adjacent Sea Areas. Sci. Press, Beijing, 252pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  254. The Multidisciplinary Oceanographic Expedition Team of Academia Sinica to Nansha Islands. 1989. Report of Multidisciplinary Survey on Nansha Islands and Adjacent Sea Areas (1). China Sci. Press, Beijing, 294pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  255. The Multidisciplinary Oceanography Expedition Team of Academia Sinica to Nansha Islands. 1993. Sedimentary Atlas of Nansha Islands and Adjacent Sea Area. Hubei Sci. Tech. Press, Wuhan, 94pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  256. The Second Marine Geological Investigation Brigade of the Ministry of Geology and Marine Resources 1987. Atlas of Geology and Geophysics of South China Sea. Map Publish House of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  257. The Second Marine Geological Investigation Brigade of the Ministry of Geology and Resources 1990. The Summary Report of Multidisciplinary Geophysical Survey on the Northern Slope of the South China Sea(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  258. The Second Marine Geological Investigation Brigade of the Ministry of Geology and Resources 1992. Chinese Report on China-USA Joint Marine Geological Survey and Research on the South China Sea (Second Stage)(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  259. Thevenon F., Bard E. and Williamson D. 2004. A biomass burning record from the West Equatorial Pacific over the last 360ky: methodological, climatic and anthropic implications. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 213: 83–99.Google Scholar
  260. Theyer F., Mayer L.A., Barron J.A. and Thomas E. 1985. The equatorial Pacific high-productivity belt: elements for a synthesis of Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 85 results. Proc. DSDP Init. Repts. 85: 971–985.Google Scholar
  261. Thiry M. 2000. Palaeoclimatic interpretation of clay minerals in marine deposits: an outlook from the continental origin. Earth-Sci. Rev. 49: 201–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Thunell R., Miao Q., Calvert S., Calvert S. and Pedersen T. 1992. Glacial-Holocene biogenic sedimentation patterns in the South China Sea: productivity variations and surface water pCO2. Paleoceanography 7: 143–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Tian J., Wang P., Cheng X., Wang R. and Sun X. 2005. Forcing mechanism of the Pleistocene east Asian monsoon variations in a phase perspective. Sci. China (D) 48(10): 1708–1717.Google Scholar
  264. Tsai C.C., Wong S.L., Chang J.S., Hwang R.L., Dai C.F., Yu Y.C., Shyu Y.T., Sheu F. and Lee T.M. 2004. Macroalgal assemblage structure on a coral reef in Nanwan Bay in southern Taiwan. Botanica Marina 47: 439–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Tütken T., Eisenhauer A., Wiegand B. and Hansen B.T. 2002. Glacial-interglacial cycles in Sr and Nd isotopic composition of Arctic marine sediments triggered by the Svalbard/Barents Sea ice sheet. Mar. Geol. 182: 351–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Twan W.H., Hwang J.S., Lee Y.H., Wu H.F., Tung Y.H. and Chang C.F. 2006. Hormones and reproduction in scleractinian corals. Comparative Biochem. Physiol. A–Molecular Integr. Physiol. 144: 247–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Vecsei A. 2001. Fore-reef carbonate production: development of a regional census-based method and first estimates. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 175: 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Vecsei A. 2004. A new estimate of global reefal carbonate production including the fore-reefs. Global Planet. Change 43: 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Wan S., Li A., Clift P.D. and Stuut J.-B.W. 2007. Development of the East Asian monsoon: mineralogical and sedimentologic records in the northern South China Sea since 20 Ma. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 254: 561–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Wallace C.C. and Dai, C.F. 1997. Scleractinia of Taiwan 4. Review of the coral genus Acropora from Taiwan. Zoological Studies 36: 288–324.Google Scholar
  271. Wang G.Z. 2001. Coral reef sedimentology of the South China Sea. China Ocean Press, Beijing, 313pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  272. Wang H., Zhou F. and Jian J. 1992. Volcanic clasts in the periplatform carbonate ooze near Zhongsha Islands and their bearing on paleo-evnironment. In: Ye Z. and Wang P. (eds.), Contributions to Late Quaternary Paleoceanography of the South China Sea. Qingdao Ocean Univ. Press, Qingdao(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  273. Wang J. 2001. Planktonic foraminiferal assemblages and paleoceanography during the last 18 Ma. PhD thesis, Tongji Univ., Shanghai(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  274. Wang J., Yin A., Harrison T.M., Grove M., Zhang Y. and Xie G. 2001. A tectonic model for Cenozoic igneous activities in the eastern Indo-Asian collision zone. Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 188: 13–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Wang L., Jian Z. and Chen J. 1997. Late Quaternary pteropods in the South China Sea: carbonate preservation and paleoenviromental variation. Mar. Micropaleotol. 32: 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Wang L., Sarenthein M., Erlenkeuser H., Grimalt J., Grootes P., Heilig S., Ivanova E., Kienast M., Pelejero C. and Pflaumann U. 1999. East Asian monsoon Climate during the late Pleistocene: high- resolution sediment records from the South China Sea. Mar. Geol. 156: 245–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Wang L. and Wang P. 1990. Late Quaternary paleoceano-graphy of the South China Sea: glacial-interglacial contrasts in an enclosed basin. Paleoceanography 5: 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Wang P. (ed.). 1995. The South China Sea Since 150 ka. Tongji Univ. Press, Shanghai, 184pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  279. Wang P. 1999. Response of Western Pacific marginal seas to glacial cycles: paleoceanographic and sedimentological features. Mar. Geol. 156: 5–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Wang P., Clemens S., Beaufort L., Braconnot P., Ganssen G., Jian Z., Kershaw P. and Sarnthein M. 2005. Evolution and variability of the Asian monsoon system: state of the art and outstanding issues. Quat. Sci. Rev. 24: 595–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Wang P., Min Q., Bian Y. and Feng W. 1986. Planktonic foraminifera in the continental slope of the northern South China Sea during the last 130,000 years and their paleoceanographic implications. Acta Geol. Sinica (Trial English Edition) 60: 1–11.Google Scholar
  282. Wang P., Prell W., Blum P. and the Leg 184 Shipboard Scientific Party 1999. Exploring the Asian monsoon through drilling in the South China Sea. JOIDES J. 25(2): 8–13.Google Scholar
  283. Wang P., Prell W.L., Blum P. (eds.). 2000. Proc. ODP, Init. Repts, Vol. 184 [CD-ROM]. Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University, College Station TX 77845–9547, USA.Google Scholar
  284. Wang P., Wang L., Bian Y. and Jian Z. 1995. Late Qauternary paleoceanography of the South China Sea: surface circulation and carbonate cycles. Mar. Geol. 127: 145–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Wang P., Bian Y. and Jian Z. 1997. Late Quaternary carbonate cycles in the Nansha Islands area, South China Sea. Quat. Sci. 17 (4): 293–300(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  286. Wang P., Zhao Q., Jian Z., Cheng X., Huang W., Tian J., Wang J., Li Q., Li B. and Su X. 2003. Thirty million year deep-sea records in the South China Sea. Chinese Sci. Bull. 48(23): 2524–2535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Wang R. and Abelmann A. 2002. Radiolarian responses to paleoceanographic events of the southern South China Sea during the Pleistocene. Mar. Micropaleontol. 46: 25–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Wang R., Clemens S., Huang B. and Chen M. 2003. Late Quaternary paleoceanographic changes in the northern South China Sea (ODP Site 1146): radiolarian evidence. J. Quat. Sci. 18(8): 745–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Wang R. and Li J. 2003. Quaternary high resolution opal record and its paleoproductivity implication at ODP Site 1143, southern South China Sea. Chinese Sci. Bull. 48(4): 363–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Wang R., Fang D., Shao L., Chen M., Xia P. and Qi J. 2001. Oligocene biogenetic siliceous deposits on the slope of the northern South China Sea. Sci. China (D) 44(10): 912–918.Google Scholar
  291. Wang R., Jian Z., Xiao W., Tian J., Li J., Chen R., Zheng L. and Chen J. 2007. Quaternary biogenic opal records in the South China Sea: linkages to East Asian monsoon, global ice volume and orbital forcing. Sci. China (D) 50(5): 710–724.Google Scholar
  292. Wang R., Li J. and Li B. 2004. Data report: Late Miocene–Quaternary biogenic opal accumulation at ODP Site 1143, southern South China Sea. In: Prell W.L., Wang P., Blum P., Rea D.K. and Clemens S.C. (eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results 184 [Online].Google Scholar
  293. Wang Y.J., Cheng H., Edwards R.L., He Y.Q., Kong X.G., An Z.S., Wu J.Y., Kelly M.J., Dykoski C.A. and Li X.D. 2005. The Holocene Asian monsoon: Links to solar changes and North Atlantic climate. Science 308: 854–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Wehausen R. and Brumsack H.J. 2002. Astronomical forcing of the East Asian monsoon mirrored by the composition of Pliocene South China Sea sediments. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 201: 621–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Wei G.J., Yu K.F. and Zhao J.X. 2004. Sea surface temperature variations recorded on coralline Sr/Ca ratios during Mid-Late Holocene in Leizhou Peninsula. Chinese Sci. Bull. 49: 1876–1881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Wei G.J., Deng W.F., Yu K.F., Li X.H., Sun W.D. and Zhao J.X. 2007. Sea surface temperature records in the northern South China Sea from mid-Holocene coral Sr/Ca ratios. Paleoceanography 22: PA3206, doi: 10.1029/2006PA001270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Wei G.J., Sun M., Li X.H. and Nie B.F. 2000. Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and U/Ca ratios of a porites coral from Sanya Bay, Hainan Island, South China Sea and their relationships to sea surface temperature. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 162: 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Wei K.Y., Lee T.Q. and Shipboard Scientific Party of IMAGES III/MD106-IPHIS Cruise (Leg II) 1998. Late Pleistocene volcanic ash layers in core MD972142, offshore from northwestern Palawan, South China Sea: A preliminary report. Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci. (TAO) Taipei 9(1): 143–152.Google Scholar
  299. Wells M., Vallis G. and Silver E. 1999. Tectonic processes in Papua New Guinea and past productivity in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature 398: 601–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Wen X.S., Tu X., Qin G.Q., Zheng F. and Zhao H.T. 2001. Foraminiferal fauna and deponsional environment of core of Nanyong-3 well in lagoon of Yongshu atoll of Nansha Islands. Tropical Oceanol. 20(4): 14–22(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  301. Wiedicke M. 1987. Biostratigraphy, Microfacies and Diagenesis of Tertiary carbonates from the South China Sea (Dangerous Grounds - Palawan, Philippinen). Facies 16: 195–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Wiesner M.G., Wang Y. and Zheng L. 1995. Fallout of volcanic ash to the deep South China Sea induced by the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo (Philippines). Geology 23: 885–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Wiesner M.G., Wetzel A., Catane S.G., Listanco E.L. and Mirabueno H.T. 2004. Grain size, areal thickness distribution and controls on sedimentation of the 1991 Mount Pinotubo tephra layer in the South China Sea. Bull. Volcanol. 66: 226–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Wiesner M.G., Zheng L. and Wong H.K. 1996. Fluxes of particulate matter in the South China Sea. In: Ittekkot V., Schäfer P., Honjo S. and Depetris P. (eds.), Particle Flux in the Ocean. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 91–154.Google Scholar
  305. Xie Z.Q., Sun L.G., Zhang P.F., Zhao S.P., Yin X.B., Liu X.D. and Cheng B.B. 2005. Preliminary geochemical evidence of groundwater contamination in coral islands of Xi-Sha, South China Sea. Applied Geochem. 20: 1848–1856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Xiao J., Porter S.C., An Z., Kumai H. and Yoshikawa S. 1995. Grain size of quartz as an indicator of winter monsoon strength on the loess plateau of central China during the last 130,000 yr. Quat. Res. 43: 22–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Xiong Y., Zhong G., Li Q., Wu N., Li X. and Ma Z. 2006. Inversion of stratal corbonate content using seismic data. Earth Sci.–J. China Univ. Geosci. 31: 851–856(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  308. Xu D., Liu X. and Zhang X. (eds.). 1997. China Offshore Geology. Geol. Publ. House, Beijing, 310pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  309. Xu H., Wang Y., Cai F., Gou Y., Sun P., Zhang B., Gong J. and Zhang Z. 2000. The Effect of Forming Reef of Biological Stratun in Miocene of Xisha Islands and Algae and the Evolutional Characteristics of Bioherm. China Sci. Press. Beijing, 144pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  310. Xu J. 2004. Quaternary planktonic foraminiferal assemblages in the southern South China Sea and paleoclimatic variations. PhD thesis, Tongji Univ., Shanghai(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  311. Xu J., Wang P., Huang B., Li Q. and Jian Z. 2005. Response of planktonic foraminifera to glacial cycles: Mid-Pleistocene change in the southern South China Sea. Mar. Micropaleontol. 54: 89–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Yamano H., Kayanne H. and Yonekura N. 2001. Anatomy of a modern coral reef flat: A recorder of storms and uplift in the late Holocene. J. Sedimentary Res. 71: 295–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Yan P. and Liu H. 2004. Tectonic-stratigraphic division and blind fold structures in Nansha waters, South China Sea. J. Asian Earth Sci. 24: 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Yan P., Deng H., Liu H., Zhang Z. and Jiang Y. 2006. The temporal and spatial distribution of volcanism in the South China Sea region. J. Asian Earth Sci. 27: 647–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Yang L., Chen M., Wang R. and Zhen F. 2002. Radiolarian record to paleoecological environment change events over the past 1.2 Ma BP in the southern South China Sea. Chinese Sci. Bull. 47(17): 1478–1483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Yang M., Wu J., Yang R. and Duan W. 1996. Stratigraphic division and nomenclature of the southwestern Nansha sea area. Geol. Res. South China Sea 8: 37–46(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  317. Yang S., Jung H.-S. and Li C. 2004. Two unique weathering regimes in the Changjjiang and Huanghe drainage basins: geochemical evidence from river sediments. Sedimentary Geol. 164: 19–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Yang Y. and Fan S. 1990. Research on volcanic sediments and origin of volcanic substance in the South China Sea during late Quaternary. Tropical Oceanol. 9(1): 52–60(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  319. Yao B. and Zeng W. 1994. The Geological Memoir of South China Sea Surveyed Jointly by China and USA. China Univ. Geosci. Press, Wuhan, 204pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  320. Ye Z.Z., He Q.X. and Zhang M.S. 1985. Study on classfication and characteristic of the islands at Xisha. Mar. Geol. Quat. Geol. 5: 1–13(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  321. Yu K.F. 2005. The coral reef at Dengloujiao, Leizhou Peninsula, northern coast of the South China Sea – its ecology and sustainable development as a resource. Acta Ecol. Sinica 25: 669–675(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  322. Yu K.F., Chen T.G., Huang D.C., Zhao H.T., Zhong J.L. and Liu D.S. 2001. The high-resolution climate recorded in the delta O-18 of Porites lutea from the Nansha Islands of China. Chinese Sci. Bull. 46: 2097–2102.Google Scholar
  323. Yu K.F., Liu D.S., Shen C.D., Zhao J.X., Chen T.G., Zhong J.L., Zhao H.T. and Song C.J. 2002a. High-frequency climatic oscillations recorded in a Holocene coral reef at Leizhou Peninsula, South China Sea. Sci. China (D) 45: 1057–1067.Google Scholar
  324. Yu K.F., Liu T.S., Chen T.G., Zhong J.L. and Zhao H.T. 2002b. High-resolution climate recorded in the delta C-13 of Porites lutea from Nansha Islands of China. Progr. Natural Sci. 12: 284–288.Google Scholar
  325. Yu K.F., Jiang M.X., Chen Z.Q. and Chen T.G. 2004a. The latest 42a sea surface temperature changes in Weizhou Island and its influence on the coral reef ecosystem. Appl. Ecol. Acta 15: 506–510(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  326. Yu K.F., Song C.J. and Zhao H.T. 1995. The characters of geomorphology and modern sediments of Yongxing Island, Xisha Islands. Tropical Oceanol. 14: 24–31(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  327. Yu K.F., Zhao J.X., Collerson K.D., Shi Q., Chen T.G., Wang P.X. and Liu T.S. 2004b. Storm cycles in the last millennium recorded in Yongshu Reef, southern South China Sea. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 210: 89–100.Google Scholar
  328. Yu K.F., Zhao J.X., Done T. and Chen T.G. 2009a. Microatoll record for large century-scale sea level fluctuations in the mid-Holocene. Quat. Res., Doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2009.02.003.Google Scholar
  329. Yu K.F., Zhao J.X., Liu T.S., Wei G.H., Wang P.X. and Collerson K.D. 2004c. High-frequency winter cooling and reef coral mortality during the Holocene climatic optimum. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 224: 143–155.Google Scholar
  330. Yu K.F., Zhao J.X., Shi Q. and Meng Q.S. 2009b. Reconstruction of storm/tsunami records over the last 4000 years using transported coral blocks and lagoon deposits in the southern South China Sea. Quatern. Intern., 195: 128–137.Google Scholar
  331. Yu K.F., Zhao J.X., Shi Q., Chen T.G., Wang P.X., Collerson K.D. and Liu T.S. 2006a. U-series dating of dead Porites corals in the South China Sea: Evidence for episodic coral mortality over the past two centuries. Quat. Geochronol. 1: 129–141.Google Scholar
  332. Yu K.F., Zhao J.X., Wang P.X., Shi Q., Meng Q.S., Collerson K.D. and Liu T.S. 2006b. High-precision TIMS U-series and AMS 14C dating of a coral reef lagoon sediment core from southern South China Sea. Quat. Sci. Rev. 25: 2420–2430.Google Scholar
  333. Yu K.F., Zhao J.X., Wei G.J., Cheng X.R. and Wang P.X. 2005b. Mid-late Holocene monsoon climate retrieved from seasonal Sr/Ca and d18O records of Porites lutea corals at Leizhou Peninsula, northern coast of the South China Sea. Global Planet. Change 47: 301–316.Google Scholar
  334. Yu K.F., Zhao J.X., Wei G.J., Cheng X.R., Chen T.G., Wang P.X. and Liu T.S. 2005a. d18O, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca records of Porites lutea corals from Leizhou Peninsula, northern South China Sea and their applicability as paleothermometers. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 218: 57–73.Google Scholar
  335. Yu K.F., Zhao H.T. and Zhu Y.Z. 1998. Modern sedimentary characteristics of Halimeda on the coral reefs of Nansha islands. Acta Sedimentol. Sinica 16: 20–24(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  336. Yu K.F., Zhong J.L., Zhao J.X., Shen C.D., Chen T.G. and Liu D.S. 2002c. Biological-geomorphological zones in a coral reef area at southwest Leizhou Peninsula unveil multiple sea level high-stands in the Holocene. Mar. Geol. Quat. Geol. 22(2): 27–33(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  337. Yu K.F., Zhu Y.Z. and Zhao H.T. 1997. Modern clastic sediments of atoll reefs (Xinyi Reef and other 3 reefs) in Nansha Islands. Nanhai Studia Marina Sinica 12: 119–147(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  338. Yue D.L., Wu S.H., Lin C.Y., Wang Q.R., Heng L.Q. and Li Y. 2005. Sedimentary and diagenetic evolution pattern of reef limestone reservoirs in Liuhua 11–1 oilfield. Oil Gas Geol. 26: 518–529.Google Scholar
  339. Zahn R., Rushdi A., Pisias N.G., Bornhold B.D., Blaise B. and Karlin R. 1991. Carbonate deposition and benthic δ13C in the subarctic Pacific: implication for changes of the oceanic carbonate system during the past 750,000 years. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 103: 116–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Zhan W., Qiu X., Sun Z., Zu J. and Tang C. 2003. Red river active fault zone in northwestern South China Sea. Tropical Oceanol. 22(2): 10–16(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  341. Zhang P., Molnar P. and Downs W.R. 2001. Increased sedimentation rates and grain sizes 2–4 Myr ago due to the influence of climate change on erosion rates. Nature 410: 891–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Zhang Q.M. 2001. On biogeomorphology of Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya city, Hainan Island, China. Chinese Sci. Bull. 46(Suppl.): 97–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Zhang M., He Q., Ye Z., Han C., Li H., Wu J. and Ju L. 1989. Sedimentary Geology of Xisha Reef Carbonates. China Sci. Press, Beijing, 117pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  344. Zhao H.T. and Yu K.F. 1999. Coral reefs of the South China Sea. In: Zhao H.T. (ed.), Geomorphology and Eenvironment of the South China Coast and the South China Sea Islands. China Sci. Press, Beijing, pp. 370–453(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  345. Zhao H.T., Sha Q.A. and Zhu Y.Z. 1992. Quaternary Coral Reef: Geology of Yongshu Reef, Nansha Islands. China Ocean Press, Beijing, 264pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  346. Zhao J.X. and Yu K.F. 2002. Timing of Holocene sea-level highstands by mass spectrometric U-series ages of a coral reef from Leizhou Peninsula, South China Sea. Chinese Sci. Bull. 47: 348–352.Google Scholar
  347. Zhao J.X. and Yu K.F. 2006. U-series dating of coral reefs from the South China Sea. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 70(Suppl. 1): A741.Google Scholar
  348. Zhao J.X. and Yu K.F. 2007. Millennial-, century- and decadal-scale oscillations of Holocene sea-level recorded in a coral reef in the northern South China Sea. Quat. Int. 167–168(Suppl.): 473.Google Scholar
  349. Zhao J.X., Yu K.F. and Chen T.G. Holocene multiple sea-level highstands recorded in a coral reef in the northern South China Sea. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (submitted).Google Scholar
  350. Zhao M.X., Yu K.-F., Zhang Q.M. and Shi Q. Long-term dynamics of coral cover in Luhuitou Fring Reef, Sanya. Mar. Environ. Sci. (in press).Google Scholar
  351. Zhao Q. and Wang P. 1999. Pregress in Quaternary paleoceanography of the South China Sea: a review. Quat. Sci. 6: 481–501(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  352. Zheng H.B., Powell C.M., Rea D.K., Wang J.L. and Wang P.X. 2004. Late Miocene and mid-Pliocene enhancement of the East Asian monsoon as viewed from the land and sea. Global Planet. Change 41: 147–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Zhong G., Geng J., Wong H.K., Ma Z. and Wu N. 2004. A semi-quantitative method for the reconstruction of eustatic sea level history from seismic profiles and its application to the southern South China Sea. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 223: 443–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Zhong G., Li Q., Hao H. and Wang L. 2007. Current status of deep-water sediment wave studies and the South China Sea perspectives. Adv. Earth Sci. 22: 907–913(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  355. Zhu Y.Z., Sha Q.A., Guo L.F., Yu K.F. and Zhao H.T. 1997. Cenozoic Coral Reef Geology of Yongshu Reef, Nansha Islands. China Sci. Press, Beijing, 134pp(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  356. Zou R.L., Meng Z.M. and Guan X.L. 1983. Ecological analysis of ahermatypic corals from the northern shelf of South China Sea. Tropical Oceanol. 2: 1–26(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  357. Zou R.L., Zhang Y.L. and Xie Y. 1988. An ecological study of reef corals around Weizhou Island. In: Xu G.Z. and Mortor B. (eds.), Proceedings on Marine Biology of the South China Sea. China Ocean Press, Beijing, pp. 201–211(in Chinese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhifei Liu
    • 1
  • Wei Huang
    • 1
  • Jianru Li
    • 1
  • Pinxian Wang
    • 1
  • Rujian Wang
    • 1
  • Kefu Yu
    • 2
  • Jianxin Zhao
    • 3
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Marine GeologySchool of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Tongji UniversityChina
  2. 2.South China Sea Institute of OceanologyChinese Academy of SciencesChina
  3. 3.Centre for Microscopy and MicroanalysisThe University of QueenslandAustralia

Personalised recommendations