Three Paths to Forest Expansion: A Comparative Historical Analysis

Part of the Landscape Series book series (LAEC, volume 10)


During the past century forests have expanded in three ways, through spontaneously regenerated secondary forests, planted forest monocultures, and planted but biodiverse household agro-forests. Each type of forest emerges out of a distinct human geographical situation. Forests regenerate spontaneously, usually after people have left the land for one reason or another. Forest plantations frequently occupy landscapes where a few landowners control much of the land. Finally, agro-forests sprout in densely populated, smallholder dominated landscapes close to urban markets. This chapter describes each set of forest generating circumstances and the associated sets of causal conditions in some detail, paying particular attention to the human geographical forces that continue to drive spontaneous reforestation in some places at the same time that they have induced people to plant trees (promoted reforestation) in other places. A final section describes policy initiatives that would encourage or expedite the expansion of forests.


Secondary Forest Clean Development Mechanism Forest Plantation Environmental Kuznets Curve Clean Development Mechanism Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Human Ecology and SociologyRutgers UniversityNewarkUSA

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