Regarding Education and Media in Southeast Europe, Country Reports on Education Capita & Capita (1999) specify that during the communist regime, civic education—as understood by the state authorities as a form of ideological education—was a top priority. The school system was included in the process of mass indoctrination. Formal education had, apart from the ideological framework of all subjects, at least three clear-cut instances of ideological education, namely subjects called “Constitution” (VII grade) and “Social-political education” (X grade), and the classes for “political education” (1 h fortnightly, lectures and debates over articles in party publications, grades V–XII).
KeywordsCooperative Learning School Subject School Culture Citizenship Education Civic Education
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