I turn back now to the US, and resume where I left off many pages ago. The new world, differing in a major respect from the old one, presents new challenges to analysis of NTD. In considering the variations in malformation frequency in the old world of Europe, within or between countries and regions, it was a given that a part of the reason for these differences stemmed from the ancient origins of their peoples, Germanic, Fenno-Ugrian, Celtic, and so on, as expressed in their individual traits and geographic patterns. European nations being overwhelmingly monocultural, even at present in the early 21st century, students of these differences largely regard their subjects as a unit, and seldom look deeply into local ethnic variations.
KeywordsFolic Acid Live Birth Prenatal Diagnosis Congenital Malformation Spina Bifida
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