Etiology I: Early Questions

  • Harold Kalter

And as a matter of fact, getting down to basics, one may ask, what is the reason for NTD. Fingers were early pointed at the nongenetic: “Dietary or other differences between communities seem more likely to be important nongenetic causes of anencephaly than a general effect of the external environment acting equally on all communities in a particular region….” Searle (1959). In the end it was a matter of understanding the genetic nature of discontinuous characters (malformed vs not malformed), as distinguished from continuous ones (hypertension, etc.), an intellectual challenge that was incompletely met (e.g. Edwards 1969).


Congenital Malformation Spina Bifida Neural Tube Defect Birth Certificate Abortion Rate 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harold Kalter
    • 1
  1. 1.Children’s Hospital Medical Center College of MedicineUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

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