The Implementation of the Bologna Process in Italy

  • Roberto Moscati
Part of the Higher Education Dynamics book series (HEDY, volume 26)


Generally speaking, higher education in Italy is in the middle of a critical transition to a new era and yet is following a non-linear path whose direction changes according to the shifting ascendancy of the countervailing forces. To explain this peculiarity one must return to the 1960s, when all systems of higher education in Europe were affected by a sudden and consistent increase in social demand. To cope with the new situation, a number of reforms were implemented to diversify the systems, either with the creation of parallel tracks or with the introduction of different stages. In Italy, the response to demand was the introduction of a completely open-door system, abolishing any kind of filter from the secondary to the tertiary level of education. The result was a flood of students coming from different secondary school tracks (some of which were not originally intended to lead to the tertiary level) and with a very different cultural capital (‘habitus’), while the university remained unchanged in its structure and quality of curricula. As a consequence, the number of university dropouts increased substantially and the output of tertiary education institutions remained unrelated to changes in the labour market.


High Education Academic Staff High Education System Academic World Italian System 
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The author is grateful to all participants at the Douro 6 Seminar but in particular to Alberto Amaral and Amélia Veiga for their comments and suggestions on the first version of this text which has been derived in part from an essay (Moscati 2006) included in the 2006 International Handbook of Higher Education.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Moscati
    • 1
  1. 1.Università Di Milano-BiccocaMilanItaly

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