Biological Role of Mycobacteria in the Environment

Chapter

Mycobacteria are generally regarded as causing diseases. Little is known, however, about the role and behaviour of saprophytic mycobacteria in the environment. In this chapter, their role in the degradation of organic compounds and in the stimulation of the growth of some protozoa is described. Special attention is paid to the mycobacteria as a source of nutrients for water fleas and dragonfly larvae in oligotrophic moorland waters.

Keywords

Mercury Cadmium Toluene Hydrocarbon Pseudomonas 

References

  1. Bastiaens L, Springael D, Wattiau P, Harms H, de Wachter R, Verachtert H, Diels L (2000) Isolation of adherent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria using PAH-sorbing carriers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66:1834–1843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bogan BW, Lahner LM, Sullivan WR, Paterek JR (2003) Degradation of straight-chain aliphatic and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a strain Mycobacterium austroafricanum. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 94:230–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brandelberger H (1988) Untersuchungen zur Funktionsmorphologie des Filterapparates von Cladoceren. Inaug. Diss. University of Kiel.Google Scholar
  4. Brennan PJ, Nikaido H (1995) The envelope of Mycobacteria. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 64:29–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brezna B, Kweon O, Stingley RL, Freeman JP, Khan AA, Polek B, Jones RC, Cerniglia CE (2006) Molecular characterization of cytochrome P450 genes in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrading Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 71:522–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan Kwo Chion CK, Askew SE, Leak DJ (2005) Cloning, expression and site-directed mutagenesis of the propene monooxygenase genes from Mycobacterium sp. strain M156. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71: 1909–1914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cirillo JD, Falkow S, Tompkins LS, Bermudez LE (1997) Interaction of Mycobacterium avium with environmental amoebae enhances virulence. Infection and Immunity. 65:3759–3767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Combourieu B, Besse P, Sanceleme M, Godin J-P, Monteil A, Veschambre H, Delort AM (2000) Common degradative pathways of morpholine, thiomorpholine, and piperidine by Mycobacterium aurum MO1: evidence from 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance and ionspray mass spectrometry performed directly on the incubation medium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66:3187–3193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Erardi FX, Failla ML, Falkinham, III JO (1987). Plasmid-encoded copper resistance and precipitation by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53: 1951–1954Google Scholar
  10. Erardi FX, Failla ML, Falkinham JO (1989) Accumulation and transport of cadmium by tolerant and susceptible strains of Mycobacterium-Scrofulaceum. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 33:350–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fairlee JR, Burback BL, Perry JJ (1997) Biodegradation of groundwater pollutants by a combined culture of Mycobacterium vaccae and a Rhodococcus sp. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 43:841–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fetzner S, Lingens F (1994) Bacterial dehalogenases: biochemistry, genetics, and biotechnological applications. Microbiological Reviews. 58:641–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gibson DT, Subramanian V (1984) Microbial degradation of organic compounds. D. T. Gibson (ed.), Microbial degradation of organic compounds. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Guerin WF, Jones GE (1988) Mineralization of anthracene by a Mycobacterium sp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 54:937–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Habe H, Omori T (2003) Genetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism in diverse aerobic bacteria. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 67:225–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heitkamp MA, Freeman JP, Miller DW, Cerniglia CE (1988) Pyrene degradation by a Mycobacterium sp.: identification of ring oxidation and ring fission products. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 54:2556–2565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Heitkamp MA, Freeman JP, Miller DW, Cerniglia CE (1991) Biodegradation of 1-nitropyrene. Archives of Microbiology. 156:223–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Janssen DB, Oppentocht JE, Poelarends GJ (2001) Microbial dehalogenation. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2:254–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Janssen DB, Pries F, van der Ploeg JR (1994) Genetics and biochemistry of dehalogenating enzymes. Annual Review of Microbiology. 48:163–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jesenska A, Bartos M, Czernekova V, Rychlik I, Pavlik I, Damborsky J (2002) Cloning and expression of the haloalkane dehalogenase gene dhmA from Mycobacterium avium N85 and preliminary characterization of DhmA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 68:3724– 3730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jesenska A, Pavlova M, Strouhal M, R. C, Tesinska I, Monincova M, Prokop Z, Bartos M, Pavlik I, Rychlik I, Mobius P, Nagata Y, Damborsky J (2005) Cloning, biochemical characterization, and distribution of mycobacterial haloalkane dehalogenases. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71:6736–6745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jesenska A, Sedlacek I, Damborsky J (2000) Dehalogenation of haloalkanes by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and other mycobacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66:219–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kaiser JP, Feng Y, Bollag DM (1996) Microbial metabolism of pyridine, quinoline, acridine, and their derivatives under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Microbiological Reviews. 60:483–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kanaly RA, Bartha R, Watanabe K, Harayama S (2000) Rapid mineralization of benzo[a]pyrene by a microbial consortium growing on diesel fuel. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66:4205–4211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kanaly RA, Harayama S (2000) Biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology. 182:2059– 2067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kazda J (2000) The ecology of mycobacteria. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 72 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kelley I, Freeman JP, Cerniglia CE (1990) Identification of metabolites from degradation of naphthalene by a Mycobacterium sp. Biodegradation. 1:283–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kelley I, Freeman JP, Evans FE, Cerniglia CE (1993) Identification of metabolites from the degradation of fluoranthene by Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 59:800–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Khan AA, Kim S-J, Paine DD, Cerniglia CE (2002) Classification of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-metabolizing bacterium, Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1, as Mycobacterium vanbaalenii sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 52:1997–2002Google Scholar
  30. Khan AA, Wang R-F, Cao W-W, Doerge DR, Wennerstrom D, Cerniglia CE (2001) Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of genes encoding a polycyclic aromatic ring dioxygenase from Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67: 3577–3585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim S-J, Kweon O, Freeman JP, Jones RC, Adjei MD, Jhoo J-W, Edmondson RD, Cerniglia CE (2006) Molecular cloning and expression of genes encoding a novel dioxygenase involved in low- and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72:1045–1054PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kleespies M, Kroppenstedt RM, Rainey FA, Webb LE, Stackebrandt E (1996) Mycobacterium hodleri sp. nov., a new member of the fast-growing mycobacteria capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 46:683–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Leys NM, Ryngaert A, Bastiaens L, Wattiau P, Top EM, Verstraete W, Springael D (2005) Occurrence and community composition of fast-growing Mycobacterium on soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 51:375–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lopez Z, Vila J, Grifoll M (2005) Metabolism of fluoranthene by mycobacterial strains isolated by their ability to grow in fluoranthene or pyrene. Journal of Indian Microbiology and Biotechnology. 32:455–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lopez Z, Vila J, Minguillon C, Grifoll M (2006) Metabolism of fluoranthene by Mycobacterium sp. strain AP1. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 70:747–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Meissner PS, Falkinham JO, III (1984) Plasmid-encoded mercuric reductase in Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. Journal of Bacteriology. 157:669–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Meza L, Cutright TJ, El-Zahab B, Wang P (2003) Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethylene using a consortium of five bacterial strains. Biotechnology Letters. 25:1925–1932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moody JD, Freeman JP, Doerge DR, Cerniglia CE (2001) Degradation of phenanthrene and anthracene by cell suspensions of Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67:1476–1483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Moody JD, Freeman JP, Fu PP, Cerniglia CE (2004) Degradation of benzo[a]pyrene by Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 70:340– 345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pavlova M, Jesenska A, Klvana M, Prokop Z, Konecna H, Sato Y, Tsuda M, Nagata Y, Damborsky J (2007) The identification of catalytic pentad in the haloalkane dehalogenase DhmA from Mycobacterium avium N85: reaction mechanism and molecular evolution. Journal of Structural Biology. 157:384–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Poelarends GJ, van Hylckama Vlieg JET, Marchesi JR, Freitas dos Santos LM, Janssen DB (1999) Degradation of 1,2-dibromoethane by Mycobacterium sp. strain GP1. Journal of Bacteriology. 181:2050–2058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Poupin P, Truffaut N, Combourieu B, Besse P, Sanceleme M, Veschambre H, Delort AM (1998) Degradation of morpholine by an environmental Mycobacterium strain involves a cytochrome P-450. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 64:159–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Rehmann K, Hertkorn N, Kettrup AA (2001) Fluoranthene metabolism in Mycobacterium sp. strain KR20: identity of pathway intermediates during degradation and growth. Microbiology. 147:2783–2794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Schousboe P, Rasmussen L (1994) Survival of Tetrahymena–Thermophila at low initial cell densities – effects of lipids and long-chain alcohols. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 41:195–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Soeffing K (1988) The importance of mycobacteria for the nutrition of larvae of Leucorrhinia rubicunda (L.). Odonatologica. 17:227–233Google Scholar
  46. Soeffing K, Kazda J (1993) Die Bedeutung der Mykobakterien in Torfmoosrasen bei der Entwicklung von Libellen in Moorgewässern. Telma. 23:261–269Google Scholar
  47. Steinert M, Birkness K, White E, Fields B, Quinn F (1998) Mycobacterium avium bacilli grow saprozoically in coculture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga and survive within cyst walls. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 64:2256–2261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Stingley RL, Khan AA, Cerniglia CE (2004) Molecular characterization of a phenanthrene degradation pathway in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 322: 133–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Strahl ED, Gillaspy GE, Falkinham JO, III (2001) Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy for measuring phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum by Tetrahymena pyriformis and their intracellular growth. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67:4432–4439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sutherland TD, Horne I, Harcourt RL, Russel RJ, Oakeshott JG (2002) Isolation and characterization of a Mycobacterium strain that metabolizes the insecticide endosulfan. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 93:380–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tay STL, Hemond HF, Polz MF, M. CC, Dejesus I, Krumholtz LR (1998) Two new Mycobacterium strains and their role in toluene degradation in a contaminated stream. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 64:1715–1720Google Scholar
  52. Thorp JH, Cothran ML (1984) Regulation of fresh-water community structure at multiple intensities of dragonfly predation. Ecology. 65:1546–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Trigui M, Pulvin S, Truffaut N, Thomas D, Poupin P (2004) Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequencing and expression of genes encoding a cytochrome P-450 system involved in secondary amine utilization in Mycobacterium sp. strain RP1.Research in Microbiology. 155:1–9Google Scholar
  54. van Herwijnen R, Springael D, Slot P, Govers HAJ, Parsons JR (2003) Degradation of anthracene by Mycobacterium sp. strain LB501T proceeds via a novel pathway, through o-phthalic acid. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69:186–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Vila J, Lopez Z, Sabate J, Minguillon C, Solanas AM, Grifoll M (2001) Identification of a novel metabolite in the degradation of pyrene by Mycobacterium sp. strain AP1: action of the isolate on two- and three-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67:5497–5505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wackett LP, Hershberger CD, Eds. (2001) Biocatalysis and biodegradation: Microbial transformation of organic compounds. ASM Press, 300 ppGoogle Scholar
  57. Wick LY, Pasche N, Bernasconi SM, Pelz O, Harms H (2003) Characterization of multiple-substrate utilization by anthracene-degrading Mycobacterium frederiksbergense LB501T. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69:6133–6142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of KielKielGermany
  2. 2.Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations